5th World Congress on Virology
University of the Western Cape,South Africa
Title: HIV and Other Retroviral Diseases Affecting Afro-Asian Continents
Biography: Cathy Nisha John
Retroviruses belong to the Retroviridae family, involving a group of single-stranded RNA viruses. The RNA virus invades a host cell, releases a reverse transcriptase enzyme, and enables the cell to make a proviral DNA which gets integrated into host DNA. They can cause serious diseases in humans including tumors, autoimmune diseases, rare anemias, and syndromes affecting the immune system of the host cell. Transmission of retroviral diseases is mainly through unprotected sexual contact, contaminated blood exposure, or by vertical transmission from mother to child during pregnancy or childbirth. Human Immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus attacking the immune system of human body, advancing into Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The gradual deterioration of the immune system would compromise the host defense in the dento-gingival region. Certain ulcers or erosions of oral and/or genital mucosa, gingivitis or periodontitis, and other oral opportunistic infections increase the risk of HIV acquisition by oral-genital contacts. Based on the data released by WHO, Sub-Saharan Africa is the most affected region, with approximately 24.7 million people living with HIV. Almost 5 million people are HIV infected in South-East Asia. Other retrovirus related human diseases are human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and human T-lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-II). About 2 to 5 percent of HTLV1 infected patients develops ATLL (Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma). Africa and East and Central Asia are probably the largest endemic area for HTLV-1. HTLV1 decreases saliva production resulting in dental infections. The discussion implies on the impact of retroviral diseases on oral diseases.
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