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13th World Congress on Virology, Infections and Outbreaks, will be organized around the theme “Advanced Research and Emerging Issues in the Field of Virology

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Virology and Viral Diseases 2018 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Virology and Viral Diseases 2018

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Clinical virology is a branch of medicine which deals with isolating and characterizing several viruses that are responsible for human diseases. It mainly deals with cell cultures, serological, biochemical and molecular studies. This field is very useful in knowing the epidemiology and spreading of viral diseases. By knowing the modes of transmission, effective treatment strategies can be invented.

  • Track 1-1Human virology
  • Track 1-2Diagnostic methods in virology
  • Track 1-3Vector and Blood borne Diseases & Molecular Diagnosis of CNS Viral Infections
  • Track 1-4Viruses in Genetic Engineering
  • Track 1-5Viruses in Nanotechnology
  • Track 1-6Emerging Viruses
  • Track 1-7Clinical Syndromes
  • Track 1-8Viruses in the immunosuppressed host
  • Track 1-9Congenital & Neonatal Viral Infections
  • Track 1-10Viral Gastroenteritis/CNS infections
  • Track 1-11HIV/Sexually transmitted viral infections
  • Track 1-12Viruses in Agriculture and Plant Sciences
  • Track 1-13Hepatitis Viruses

Virus is the pathogenic microbe that causes infections in human body. Virions are the virus particles which are consisted of two parts such as genetic material and protein coat. Viruses mainly affect the human immune system of the human body. Hepatitis virus is the common virus that degenerates the immunity of the body. Virulence is the capacity of the virus to infect the human system. Vaccination helps in preventing the infections caused by virus, as it produces the antibodies that are necessary in defense mechanism. The most common and well know lethal disease caused by human immune deficiency virus is AIDS.

 

  • Track 2-1Varicellazoster virus
  • Track 2-2 AIDS
  • Track 2-3smallpox
  • Track 2-4Influenza virus
  • Track 2-5Flavivirus
  • Track 2-6Deltavirus
  • Track 2-7Polio virus
  • Track 2-8Herpes simplex virus
  • Track 2-9Adeno virus

Respiratory tract infections mainly affect the nose and throat. This can also be caused by any of the other several different viruses. The most common respiratory tract infections include the common cold and influenza. The most commonly detected viruses are respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus and the influenza virus. Doctors often refer to these as upper respiratory infections because they cause symptoms mainly in the parts of nose and throat. In small children, viruses also commonly cause infections of the lower respiratory tract the windpipe, airways, and lungs. These infections include croup, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia. Children sometimes have infections involving both the upper and lower respiratory tracts. In children, rhinoviruses, influenza viruses, parainfluenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, enter viruses, and certain strains of adenovirus are the main causes of viral respiratory infections.

  • Track 3-1Tuberculosis Causes ,Diagnosis, Treatment, Preventive Measures
  • Track 3-2Causes of Viral Respiratory Infections
  • Track 3-3Bronchiolities,Tonsilties Causes,Diagnosis and Treatment
  • Track 3-4Influenza Vaccines: Latest Update
  • Track 3-5Pneumonia
  • Track 3-6Hepatitis And Virology In Humans
  • Track 3-7Laboratory Tests
  • Track 3-8Therapy for Respiratory Viral infections
  • Track 3-9Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
  • Track 3-10Upper Respiratory Tract Infections

Viral immunology is the study of viral infections and immune responses towards viral infections which can cause deleterious effect on the functions of the cells. It includes both DNA and RNA viral infections. Viruses are strongly immunogenic and induces 2 types of immune responses; humoral and cellular. The repertoire of specificities of T and B cells are formed by rearrangements and somatic mutations. T and B cells do not generally recognize the same epitopes present on the same virus. B cells see the free unaltered proteins in their native 3-D conformation whereas T cells usually see the Ag in a denatured form in conjunction with MHC molecules. The characteristics of the immune reaction to the same virus may differ in different individuals depending on their genetic constitutions.

Humoral response is responsible for blocking the infectivity of the virus (neutralization). Those of the IgM and IgG class are especially relevant for defense against viral infections accompanied by viraemia, whereas those of the IgA class are important in infections acquired through a mucosa. In contrast, the cellular response kills the virus-infected cells expressing viral proteins on their surfaces, such as the glycoproteins of enveloped viruses and sometimes core proteins of these viruses.

  • Track 4-1Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
  • Track 4-2Human and animal viral immunology
  • Track 4-3Virus-based immunological diseases, including autoimmune syndromes
  • Track 4-4Viral immunology methods
  • Track 4-5Filoviruses-Ebola virus & Westnile Viruses
  • Track 4-6Corona Viruses
  • Track 4-7Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
  • Track 4-8Swine flu outbreak,Prevention & Treatment
  • Track 4-9HIV Associated Diseases
  • Track 4-10Viral Meningitis
  • Track 4-11HIV and Retroviral Transmission and Prevention

Vaccines that are developed from viruses are viral vaccines. Viral vaccines contain either inactivated viruses or attenuated viruses. One of the most common examples of viral vaccine is MMR (mumps, measles and rubella) vaccine. Inactivated or killed viral vaccines contain viruses, which have lost their ability to replicate and in turn cause disease. The first human vaccines against viruses were based using weaker or attenuated viruses to generate immunity. The smallpox vaccine used cowpox, a poxvirus that was similar enough to smallpox to protect against it but usually didn't cause serious illness .Rabies was the first virus attenuated in a lab to create a vaccine for humans.

 

  • Track 5-1Polio Vaccines
  • Track 5-2Ebola Vaccines
  • Track 5-3Tuberculosis Vaccines
  • Track 5-4Adenovirus vaccine
  • Track 5-5Influenza and Respiratory Vaccine
  • Track 5-6Malaria & TB Vaccines
  • Track 5-7Mumps, measles and rubella/MMR Vaccines
  • Track 5-8Live attenuated vaccines
  • Track 5-9Rabies Vaccines
  • Track 5-10Inactivated vaccines
  • Track 5-11Molecular Immunology
  • Track 5-12Viral immunology infection & immunity
  • Track 5-13Nutritional Immunology

Viruses quickly adapt to and exploit the varying conditions because they have polymerase enzyme that helps in viral replication. Emerging viral disease is a major threat to global health. Due to rapid mutation and adaptation to changing environment several new viral diseases causing human illness.Emerging viral diseases are a major threat to human and veterinary public health such as Ebola virus in Africa, along with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), several influenza subtypes, and MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome) coronaviruses have underscored the urgency of understanding factors influencing viral disease emergence and spreading world-wide. The world's current leading infectious killer, HIV, has caused an estimated 36 million deaths since the first cases were reported in 1981.

  • Track 6-1Infectious Viruses and pathogenicity
  • Track 6-2Impact of viral Infectious diseases
  • Track 6-3Acute viral infections
  • Track 6-4Epidemiology & Public Health
  • Track 6-5Viruses’ Role in Human Evolution
  • Track 6-6Infectious Viruses and pathogenicity

Antiviral drugs are medication used specifically for treating viral infections. Like antibiotics for bacteria, specific antivirals are used for specific viruses. Unlike most antibiotics, antiviral drugs do not destroy their target pathogen; instead they inhibit their development.Antiviral drugs are one type of antimicrobials, a larger group which also includes antibiotic (also termed antibacterial), antifungal and antiparasitic drugs. They are relatively harmless to the host, and therefore can be used to treat infections. They should be distinguished from viricides, which are not medication but deactivate or destroy virus particles, either inside or outside the body. Antivirals also can be found in essential oils of some herbs, such as eucalyptus oil and its constituents.Most of the antiviral drugs now available are designed to help deal with HIV, herpes viruses, the hepatitis B and C viruses, which can cause liver cancer, and influenza A and B viruses.

The general idea behind modern antiviral drug design is to identify viral proteins, or parts of proteins, that can be disabled. These "targets" should generally be as unlike any proteins or parts of proteins in humans as possible, to reduce the likelihood of side effects. The targets should also be common across many strains of a virus, or even among different species of virus in the same family, so a single drug will have broad effectiveness. Almost all anti-microbials, including anti-virals, are subject to drug resistance as the pathogens mutate over time.

  • Track 7-1Preventive Health and Pharmaceutical Drug
  • Track 7-2Classification of Antiviral Drugs
  • Track 7-3Ebola and Marburg virus
  • Track 7-4Hepatitis C
  • Track 7-5RNA viruses
  • Track 7-6Herpesviruses and poxviruses
  • Track 7-7Structural virology
  • Track 7-8Viral diseases of animals
  • Track 7-9Norovirus & Emerging Viruses

Epidemiology is the study of the determinants, dynamics and distribution of diseases in the population. Viral epidemiology is the branch of medical science that deals with the transmission and control of virus infections in humans. Transmission of viruses can be vertical, which means from mother to child, or horizontal, which means from person to person. Examples of vertical transmission include hepatitis B virus and HIV, where the baby is born already infected with the virus. Another, rarer, example is the varicella zoster virus, which, although causing relatively mild infections in humans, can be fatal to the foetus and newborn baby.

Epidemiology is used to break the chain of infection in populations during outbreaks of viral diseases. Control measures are used that are based on knowledge of how the virus is transmitted. It is important to find the source, or sources, of the outbreak and to identify the virus. Once the virus has been identified, the chain of transmission can sometimes be broken by vaccines. When vaccines are not available, sanitation and disinfection can be effective. Often, infected people are isolated from the rest of the community, and those that have been exposed to the virus are placed in quarantine. Most viral infections of humans and other animals have incubation periods during which the infection causes no signs or symptoms. Incubation periods for viral diseases range from a few days to weeks, but are known for most infections.

  • Track 8-1Ebola
  • Track 8-2Marburg
  • Track 8-3Hantavirus
  • Track 8-4Lassa
  • Track 8-5Rabies
  • Track 8-6Smallpox
  • Track 8-7Dengue
  • Track 8-8Influenza
  • Track 8-9Influenza

Viral infections are hard to treat because viruses live inside the body cells. They are "protected" from medicines, which usually move through bloodstream. Antibiotics do not work for viral infections. There are a few antiviral medicines available. Vaccines can help prevent you from getting many viral diseases. Viruses are capsular with genetic material inside .They are tiny, much smaller than bacteria .Viruses cause familiar infectious disease such as the common cold flu and warts. They also cause severe illness such as HIV, smallpox and hemorrhagic fevers. Antiviral drugs are used for the treatment of viral infection. An antiviral agent tends to narrow in spectrum and have limited efficacy. The drugs used for viral infection are Acyclovir (Zovirax), famciclovir (Famvir), and valacyclovir (Valtrex) are effective against herpesvirus, including herpes zoster and herpes genitalis. Drugs used for treatment for viral fever are Acetaminophen (Tylenolothers) or ibuprofen (Advil, motrin IB).

  • Track 9-1Sexually transmitted virus
  • Track 9-2DNA & RNA Viruses
  • Track 9-3Transforming Proteins of DNA Tumor Viruses
  • Track 9-4Tumor Virology
  • Track 9-5Live, Attenuated, Inactivated, DNA vaccines
  • Track 9-6Infectious Agents and Cancer
  • Track 9-7Organ Specific Cancers & Tumor Virology
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  • \ \\ Zika has become one of the most worldwide spreading dangerous infection over the past decade because of its perpetual spread, initially in Asia-Pacific region, followed by its expeditious entry into the Western world. Zika virus was initially discovered in rhesus monkey in the forest of Uganda. But due to Unique genetic recombination in the genome of Zika virus has made the Zika infection more dangerous than the last one. Zika virus can be transmitted through both vector and non-vector means such as mosquito and sexual transmission. Eighty percent patient with Zika virus showed asymptomatic symptoms on the initial stage of disease onset but later symptoms can become severe.
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  • \ \\ Rabies is a viral disease that causes acute inflammation of the brain in humans and other warm-blooded animals. Rabies is transmitted to humans from other animals. Rabies can be transmitted when an infected animal scratches or bites another animal or human. Saliva from an infected animal can also transmit rabies if the saliva comes into contact with a mucous membrane of another animal or human. Most rabies cases in humans are the result of dog bites.
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  • \ \\ Dengue is transmitted by the bite of a mosquito infected with one of the four dengue virus serotypes. It is a febrile illness that affects infants, young children and adults with symptoms appearing 3-14 days after the infective bite.Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne disease that occurs in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Mild dengue fever causes high fever, rash, and muscle and joint pain. A severe form of dengue fever, also called dengue hemorrhagic fever, can cause severe bleeding, a sudden drop in blood pressure (shock) and death.
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    \ \\ <li style="\\&quot;text-align:" justify;\\"="">\\ Influenza is commonly called as flu. It is caused by virus. Influenza starts with common cold. Avian influenza is the disease caused by birds. In general humans are not affected with this flu. However, people who are in direct contact with influenza affected poultry may develop the disease. Flu virus attacks the respiratory system of humans. Body pains, headaches, cough, high fever are some of the symptom of flu. This is a contagious disease which spread easily through air and water as means. Treatment involves medication with antiviral drugs helps in curing the lethal condition.\\\
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  • Track 10-1Poxviruses
  • Track 10-2Ebolaviruses
  • Track 10-3The Baculoviruses
  • Track 10-4Arenaviruses
  • Track 10-5Influenza
  • Track 10-6Dengue
  • Track 10-7Smallpox
  • Track 10-8Rabies
  • Track 10-9Lassa
  • Track 10-10Hantavirus
  • Track 10-11Marburg
  • Track 10-12Ebola
  • Track 10-13Pseudoviruses
  • Track 10-14Proteomics & Genomics
  • Track 10-15Viriods
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is an enveloped virus, belonging to the viral family Retroviridae. It is a highly evolved virus which has grasped the attention of all researchers with its special features like morphology, genetics and also by its emerging nature. The special feature of all retro viruses is the presence of an enzyme called Reverse transcriptase which plays major role in reverse transcription process. HIV enters the host body, damages immune system and will cause life-threatening opportunistic infections finally leads to AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome).
  • Diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus can be performed by various bio-chemical techniques. Body fluids like saliva, urine or serum of suspected individuals should be collected for the detection of RNA, antibodies or antigens. Diagnoses through antibody detection tests are specially designed biochemical techniques which are extremely accurate and inexpensive. ELISA and Western blot techniques are well-known antibody detection tests for the diagnosis of HIV.
  • Antiretroviral treatment are medications that treat HIV. The drugs do not kill or cure the virus. However, when taken in combination they can prevent the growth of the virus. When the virus is slowed down, so is HIV disease. Antiretroviral drugs are referred to as ARV. Combination ARV therapy (cART) is referred to as highly active ART (HAART). Each type, or “class”, of ARV drugs attacks HIV in a different way. The first class of anti-HIV drugs was the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (also called NRTIs or “nukes”.) These drugs block step 4, where the HIV genetic material is used to create DNA from RNA.
  • Current Research deals with morphology and genetic alterations of HIV with main focus on infection, transmission, replication, reverse transcription, diagnosis, vaccine research, immunological reactions, prevention and treatment techniques, etc.
  • Track 11-1Viral Infections of Humans
  • Track 11-2STD & HIV Infection
  • Track 11-3Non communicable Infectious Diseases
  • Track 11-4Diagnosis of infectious diseases
  • Track 11-5Vector-borne Diseases
  • Track 11-6Urinary tract infections
  • Track 11-7Pediatric Infectious Diseases
  • Track 11-8Respiratory Infectious Diseases
  • Track 11-9Dermatological Infectious Diseases
  • Track 11-10STDs/STIs and Infertility
  • Track 11-11HIV/AIDS and Retroviral Diseases
  • Track 11-12Rapid Detection of Infectious Agents
  • Track 11-13Viral Vaccines
  • Track 11-14Bacterial Viral Interactions
  • Track 11-15Fungal Infections
  • Track 11-16Bacterial Infections
  • Track 11-17Immunology of Infections
  • Track 11-18Parasitic infections

Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects the liver. It can cause both acute and chronic infections. Many people have no symptoms during the initial infection. Some develop a rapid onset of sickness with vomiting, yellowish skin, tiredness, dark urine and abdominal pain. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the major public health concerns. About 2 billion infected individuals globally, 350 million chronic hepatitis and up to 1.2 million death annually due to HBV infection have been made the emergency of this infection inevitable. Approximately 75% of patients with chronic hepatitis live in Asia and Africa and up to 15-45% of HBV infected patients grows to cirrhosis, liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). More than 35% of Iranian populations have been exposed to HBV and more than 3% of the community estimated to be virus carriers.

 

  • Track 12-1Restriction Factors
  • Track 12-2Interferons
  • Track 12-3Immunomodulators
  • Track 12-4Antiviral agents
  • Track 12-5Virucidal agents
  • Track 12-6Antiviral Chemotherapy
  • Track 12-7Vaccines
  • Track 12-8Passive Prophylaxis
  • Track 12-9Active Prophylaxis
  • Track 12-10Immunoprophylaxis
  • Track 12-11Antiviral Research and Strategies
  • Track 12-12Antiviral Therapy and Resistance
  • Track 12-13Antivirals
  • Track 12-14Cytokines

Herpes simplex virus belongs to herpesvirus family. Herpes simplex virus is classified into 2 types: namely HSV-1 and HSV-2. This virus causes incurable disease herpes. HSV-1 is commonly known for cold sores whereas HSV-2 for genital herpes. Herpes simplex virus cannot be eradicated totally from the infected living being but can be treated to some extent partially. Symptoms of herpes simplex virus infection include watery blisters in the skin or mucous membranes of the mouth, lips, nose, or genitals. As neurotropic and neuroinvasive viruses, HSV-1 and -2 persist in the body by becoming latent and hiding from the immune system in the cell bodies of neurons. After the initial or primary infection, some infected people experience sporadic episodes of viral reactivation or outbreaks. In an outbreak, the virus in a nerve cell becomes active and is transported via the neuron's axon to the skin, where virus replication and shedding occur and cause new sores. It is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections.

  • Track 13-1Biotechnology in Plant Viral Diseases
  • Track 13-2Wheat and Rice Viruses
  • Track 13-3Vegetable Viruses
  • Track 13-4Tobacco Viruses (TMV)
  • Track 13-5Grape Wine Leaf Roll Disease

Viruses are also known to induce cancer in humans. The viruses that cause cancer are termed as oncovirus. Many of these viral oncogenes have been discovered and identified to cause cancer. The main viruses associated with human cancers are human papillomavirus, hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus, Epstein-Barr virus, human T-lymphotropic virus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Merkel cell polyomavirus.

 

  • Track 14-1Rhabdoviruses
  • Track 14-2Bluetongue Virus
  • Track 14-3Flaviviruses
  • Track 14-4Toroviruses
  • Track 14-5Circoviruses
  • Track 14-6Arteriviruses
  • Track 14-7Paramyxoviruses
  • Track 14-8Influenza
  • Track 14-9Herpesviruses
  • Track 14-10Parvovirus
  • Track 14-11Foot & Mouth Disease Virus
  • Track 14-12Avian Influenza
  • Track 14-13Retroviruses
  • Track 14-14Swine Influenza
  • Track 14-15African Swine Fever Virus
  • Track 14-16Coronaviruses

Molecular virology is the study of viruses on a molecular level. Viruses are sub microscopic parasites that replicate inside host cells. They are able to successfully infect and parasitize all kinds of life forms- from microorganisms to plants and animals and as a result viruses have more biological diversity than the rest of the bacterial, plant, and animal kingdoms combined. Studying this diversity is the key to a better understanding of how viruses interact with their hosts, replicate inside them, and cause diseases.

In recent years viruses have been increasingly recognized as important causes of outbreaks of food borne disease. While in many countries viruses are now considered to be an extremely common cause of foodborne illness, they are rarely diagnosed as the analytical and diagnostic tools for such viruses are not widely available. However, much progress has been made recently in terms of the methodology available for detection and identification of viruses in both food and clinical samples.

The potential usefulness of viral gene replacement therapy in human disease has been an exciting and extensively-studied topic in the field of skeletal muscle disease for the past 20 years. Unfortunately, while the strategy of replacing or supplementing copies of mutant gene is a straightforward concept, a number of complicating factors have been identified as gene therapy trials have progressed toward clinical studies. While some of these issues, including the immunological response to viral vectors, are issues that are encountered with all forms of gene therapy, the use of gene therapy in skeletal muscle also poses additional challenges for which treatment strategies need to be optimized. Despite these challenges, there has been substantial progress in recent years toward optimizing viral gene therapy for skeletal muscle disease in animal models, with an eye toward optimizing the safety and efficacy of viral gene therapy in humans. Skeletal muscle disorders represent considerable opportunities for investigators developing viral gene therapy strategies, due to the numerous monogenetic diseases of skeletal muscle, the clear and quantifiable clinical phenotypes, and the easy accessibility of muscle tissue. Mutations in the dystrophin gene predispose the myofiber membrane to contraction-induced membrane damage, resulting in inflammation, and myonecrosis, and progressive loss of functional muscle tissue. Several murine and canine models of dystrophinopathy have been used to study these diseases and evaluate potential therapies, including several viral gene therapy approaches. Viral gene therapy approaches have also been investigated for other disorders of skeletal muscle, including lysosomal storage disorders and congenital myopathies, and these studies have benefitted immensely from the pioneering work that was performed using dystrophinopathy models.

The study of the viruses which infect nervous system is called Neuro virology. Viral infections of brain are a bit complicated to understand due to the various underlying reasons. One of the main reasons is that the virus acts in an unpredictable manner due to this much of the experiments carried out are based on testing the hypothesis which is a major drawback.

Viral infections of the brain are less common than any other infections because unlike other organ infections brain infections depend upon the breakdown and passage through the blood brain barrier which occurs very rarely. Viruses take advantage of such events and cause neurological problems through a number of mechanisms like causing cell lysis, inducing apoptosis or by creating secondary damage due to release of glutamate. Viruses such as rabies do not kill neurons but they alter cellular transcriptional pathways to express viral genes rather than neuronal genes, these results in neurons that no longer function as neurons, but look normal upon routine pathological examination making it difficult for the virologist to identify the virus. Due to all these reasons we need to have a complete understanding and knowledge of viruses and their makeup in order to identify and treat that infection.

Skin infection is the major infection to the skin caused by bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses. The major skin infectious diseases are impetigo, Staph infections, cellulitis etc. Skin infections can lead to skin inflammations such as infectious dermatitis. It is also a cause of various skin diseases that can ultimately lead to leprosy. Skin infections can be bacterial skin infections, fungal skin infections, viral skin infection etc. In case of ignorance these infections can spread from skin to blood stream.

Emerging Infectious Diseases are caused by newly identified species or strains that may have evolved from a known infection or spread to a new population or area undergoing ecologic transformation, or be reemerging infections, like drug resistant tuberculosis. The incidence of emerging infectious disease has increased in the past 20 years. These are a significant burden on global economies and public health. Emerging infections account for at least 12% of all human pathogens. EIDs are caused by newly identified species or strains (e.g. Severe acute respiratory syndrome, HIV/AIDS) that may have evolved from a known infection (e.g. influenza) or spread to a new population (e.g. West Nile fever) or to an area undergoing ecologic transformation (e.g. Lyme disease), or be reemerging infections, like drug resistant tuberculosis. Nosocomial (hospital-acquired) infections, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are emerging in hospitals and extremely problematic in that they are resistant to many antibiotics.

Infectious diseases are caused by several microorganisms. Different types of laboratory tests are useful for identification of microorganism are stained and examining, cultured, tested for antibodies to organism and testing for genetic material. Other sample tests like sputum, stool and swabs are also sent for testing. Drugs that are used in treatment are clindamycin, cipro oral, metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, tetracyclin, gentamycin, amphotericin B and many more. Infectious diseases are disorders caused by organisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites. Many organisms live in and on our bodies. They are normally harmless or even helpful, but under certain conditions, some organisms may cause disease.

Infectious diseases have a range of causes, and they can be found all over the world. These diseases are considered contagious or communicable, meaning that they can be passed from person to person. Therapy or treatment is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis. Infection control is the discipline concerned with preventing nosocomial or healthcare-associated infection, a practical (rather than academic) sub-discipline of epidemiology. It is an essential, though often underrecognized and undersupported, part of the infrastructure of health care. Infection control and hospital epidemiology are akin to public health practice, practiced within the confines of a particular health-care delivery system rather than directed at society as a whole.

Infections of alimentary canal due to action of microbes are known as gastrointestinal infectionsMany microbes such bacteria (E. coli, Staphylococcus, Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, Clostridium), viruses, (Rotavirus, Adenoviruses, Parvoviruses, etc) and other parasites (Giardia, Entamoeba, Ascaris) causes infection in various parts of gut.  Few common symptoms that arise due to infections are vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramping, etc. Rotavirus is the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis among children. Norovirus is the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis outbreaks. Other viruses that cause the stomach flu include adenovirus, calicivirus and astrovirus. Most cases of viral gastroenteritis clear on their own within 2 to 4 days, but dehydration may require medical treatment. Diagnosis of gastrointestinal infections is confirmed by various types of laboratory tests using culture or antigen detection from stool specimen. In some cases microbial resistance of E. coliSalmonella, Clostridium difficile is tested using antibiotic susceptibility. A major outbreak of gastrointestinal infection is mainly seen in hospital environment.

Newborns are particularly susceptible to certain diseases, much more so than older children and adults. Their new immune systems aren't adequately developed to fight the bacteria, viruses, and parasites that cause these infections. These infections may occur at delivery time and also from external sources after birth. In case of utero infection, infection may occur before birth consequences depend on time of infection, spontaneous abortion, premature birth. Common viral agents are herpes virus, hepatitis B, unless virus transmits transplacentally. Bacterial agents include streptococci, enteric gram negative organisms.

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\ <p justify;\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"="" style="text-align: justify;">Diarrhea that is characterised by frequent and watery intestine movements is usually caused by canal infections, though it may return from different sicknesses or changes in diet. Germs like parasites, viruses, or microorganism all will cause canal (GI) infections. There are a colossal variety of microbes that cause change within the intestines. Microorganism (E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, Clostridium), viruses, and parasites will all cause malady within the intestines. Most of the time infections of the intestines end in diarrhoea or infectious disease, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal cramping. If the infection is within the gut symptoms embody watery diarrhoea or ejection. Infections within the intestine typically end in infectious disease. There are an enormous number of microbes that cause disease in the intestines. Bacteria (E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, Clostridium), viruses (Norwalk agent, Rotaviruses), and parasites (Giardia, Entamoeba, Ascaris) can all cause disease in the intestines.

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A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a bacterial infection that alters the urinary system that produces, stores, and eliminates urine. The causative of the infection is a bacteria called Escherichia coli. Composition of urine is salts, fluids and waste produces, but does not usually have bacteria in it. Bacteria inflowing the bladder or kidney can multiply rapidly in the urine, causing a UTI (urinary tract infection). Cystitis is the most common type of UTI and mostoftenly referred to as a bladder infection. A kidney infection, also known as pyelonephritis is potentially more serious. Women are more likely than men to have a UTI. This is because in women the urethra is nearer to the anus than it is in men, which makes it easier for bacteria to get from the anus to the urethra. In women the urethra is also much shorter than it is in men, making it easier for bacteria to contact the bladder. Antibiotics are used to treat UTIs. The majority cases of UTIs clear up after a few days of drug treatment, although more severe cases may require few weeks of treatment. Guidelines recommend using nitrofurantoin or trimethoprin-sulfamethoxazole as first-line antibiotic treatments for UTIs. Fluoroquinolones (such as ciprofloxacin) are now only recommended when other antibiotics are not appropriate.

\ Diagnostic virology is rapidly moving into the mainstream of clinical medicine. Multiple methods are used for the laboratory diagnosis of viral infections, including viral culture, antigen detection, nucleic acid detection, and serology. The role of culture is diminishing as new immunologic and molecular tests are developed that provide more rapid results and are able to detect a larger number of viruses. First, dramatic progress in antiviral therapeutics has increased the need for specific viral diagnoses. Second, technological developments, particularly in the area of nucleic acid chemistry, have provided important new tools for viral diagnosis. Third, the number of patients at risk for opportunistic viral infections has expanded greatly as a result of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Finally, modern management of HIV infection and hepatitis C is providing a new paradigm for the integration of molecular techniques into management of chronic viral infections. These developments are not only increasing the use of diagnostic virology but are reshaping the field.

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\ <p justify;\\"="" style="text-align: justify;">Viruses are evolved to infect all life forms, with similar genomes during replication. Inside a cell, all viruses mustuncoat, replicate, and transcribe their genomes, and their genomes are packed into viral progeny that are released from cells. RNA viruses in specific must bring together the plus and minus strand synthesis and during replication and transcription though protecting their genomes from cellular nucleases.

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Plant viruses are wide spread and economically important plant pathogens. The morphology, genome structure, reproduction strategy of different types of plant viruses, which together form the basis of virus classification. Plant viruses consist of a nucleoprotein in that multiplies only in the living cells of a host .The presence of viruses in host cells often results in disease, 400 or more viruses are known to attack plants .

The first record of a disease that was later found to be caused by a plant virus was on tulips in the 17th century in the Netherlands. First experimental demonstration of the infections nature of viral disease was recorded by Lawrence, who described the  transmission of a disease of jasmine by grafting. The ultimate goal in plant virus disease control is therefore to prevent virus spread by either controlling the vectors or through the eradication of infected plants. To protect the interest of farmers, the agricultural industry, as well as national and international trade, it is important that nurseries and tissue culture laboratories provide healthy virus free propagation material. Plants such as mother plants, seedlings and sometimes seed used as propagation material should be tested for viruses before it is supplied to farmers or other nurseries.

 

<p style="\&quot;text-align:" justify;\"="">\r\n Structural Virology is the molecular mechanism used by viruses to invade host cells establish an infection and ensure that progeny virus particles are released into the environment, all while evading the host's immune defences. Viruses are the smallest self -replicating organisms. Even though individually viruses are rather simple, as a group they are exceptionally diverse in both replication strategies and structures. Structural Virology interested in how large double-stranded DNA viruses like herpes simplex virus and vaccinia virus (the smallpox vaccine) subvert the membrane trafficking machinery and innate immune defences of human cells. To study these problems we use a host of structural, biochemical, biophysical and cell-based techniques including protein X-ray crystallography, mass spectrometry, fluorescence microscopy, infection studies, multi-angle light scattering, differential scanning fluorimetry, isothermal titration calorimetry, surface plasmon resonance and fluorescence anisotropy.

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<p style="\&quot;text-align:" justify;\"="">\r\n Viral hepatitis is liver inflammation due to a viral infection. The liver's functions include detoxifying the blood, storing vitamins, and producing hormones. Hepatitis can disrupt these processes and create severe health problems throughout the body. The three main types of hepatitis are known as hepatitis A, B, and C. Each is caused by a different virus. All three types can be acute, lasting for 6 months or less, and types B and C can be chronic, lasting for longer. The most common causes of viral hepatitis are the five unrelated hepatotropic viruses hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, hepatitis D, and hepatitis E. In addition to the nominal hepatitis viruses, other viruses that can also cause liver inflammation include cytomegalovirus, Epstein–Barr virus, and yellow fever. As the symptoms of the different types of hepatitis are similar, the type and severity of hepatitis may only be diagnosed through laboratory tests. There is no specific treatment for HAV and HBV. The doctor will advise the patient to abstain from alcohol and drugs during the recovery. A patient with hepatitis C will be prescribed antiviral agents, with or without ribavirin.

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<p style="\&quot;text-align:" justify;\"="">\r\n Veterinary virology deals with the study of viruses in animals. Animal viruses are viruses that infect animals. It is a critical branch of veterinary medicine.  Zoonotic diseases are those which can be actually transmissible from vertebrate animals to humans. Pestivirus infect only mammals, including members of the family Bovidae (cattle, sheep and goats) and the family Suidae (species of swine). Prion disease represents to a group of conditions that influence the nervous system in animals.

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<p style="\&quot;text-align:" justify;\"="">\r\n Nipah virus (NiV) is a member of the family Paramyxoviridae, genus Henipavirus. NiV was initially isolated and identified in 1999 during an outbreak of encephalitis and respiratory illness among pig farmers and people with close contact with pigs in Malaysia and Singapore. Its name originated from Sungai Nipah, a village in the Malaysian Peninsula where pig farmers became ill with encephalitis. Nipah virus is a zoonotic virus (it is transmitted from animals to humans) and can also be transmitted through contaminated food or directly between people. In infected people, it causes a range of illnesses from asymptomatic (subclinical) infection to acute respiratory illness and fatal encephalitis. The virus can also cause severe disease in animals such as pigs, resulting in significant economic losses for farmers. Bats are the main reservoir for this virus, which can cause disease in humans and animals. Since there is no vaccine or treatment currently for the Nipah virus, prevention is the key to stop the spread and remain safe from this virus.

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