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14th International Conference on Virology, Emerging Diseases & vaccines, will be organized around the theme “Future Challenges to Eradicate Viral Infections for healthy life”

Virology and Viral Diseases 2020 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Virology and Viral Diseases 2020

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Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) represent footprints of previous retroviral infection and have been termed “fossil viruses”. These viruses are spread through vertical transmission via the germline DNA. The role of HERVS in disease is not well understood. They may play a role in human cancers and autoimmune disease. While in baboons and mice there are ERVs that are transmissible as infectious viruses, this is not the case in humans. Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs) may be triggers of autoimmune rheumatic disease. Most endogenous retroviruses are silent—the genes that they encode are not expressed or are expressed only under restricted conditions, although in some animals one or more endogenous retroviruses are normally expressed during the lifetime of an animal.

Virology is the scientific discipline concerned with the study of the biology of viruses and viral diseases, including the distribution, biochemistry, physiology, molecular biology, ecology, evolution and clinical aspects of viruses. Viruses also cause serious diseases in plants and livestock. Viruses have been implicated in a disease that is ravaging our honeybees, threatening natural pollination cycles and thus much of agriculture.  A major branch of virology is virus classification. Viruses can be classified according to the host cell they infect animal viruses, plant viruses, fungal viruses, and bacteriophages. Viruses cause many important infectious diseases, among them the common cold, influenza, rabies, measles, many forms of diarrhoea, hepatitis, Dengue fever, yellow fever, polio, smallpox and AIDS. Herpes simplex causes cold sores and genital herpes and is under investigation as a possible factor in Alzheimer's. The study of the manner in which viruses cause disease is viral pathogenesis. The degree to which a virus causes disease is its virulence.

 

Influenza and acute respiratory virus disease is a field of public health of major international importance.  Recent epidemiological events - the 2009 pandemic of H1N1 influenza, first identified in Mexico; the occurrence of human cases of avian influenza A(H7N9) in China; the emergence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV); and ongoing outbreaks of virulent avian influenza A(H5N1) in several countries; continue to highlight the requirement for international collaboration on respiratory virus research and development.  Acute respiratory infections (ARI) impose a significant burden of both morbidity and mortality on children worldwide. In 2000 alone, an estimated 1·9 million children under the age of five died as the result of ARI, accounting for 14% of total mortality in the age group. While most infections are fairly mild, self‐limiting, and confined to the upper respiratory tract, severe illnesses can also occur. Influenza infections can be life‐threatening, mainly among the elderly, yet present a risk for the entire human population in the wake of influenza pandemics. As a result of constant genetic mutations in the influenza virus, the effectiveness of vaccination depends on the continuous monitoring of circulating strains globally.

Viral pathogenesis, then, is defined as “how viruses produce disease in the host.” The portrait of viral pathogenesis is the sum of functions through which a virus causes disease (virulence) and the host resists or is susceptible. To infect its host, a virus must first enter cells at a body surface. Common sites of entry include the mucosal linings of the respiratory, alimentary, and urogenital tracts, the outer surface of the eye. The term viremia describes the presence of infectious virus particles in the blood. These virions may be free in the blood or contained within infected cells. Virulence refers to the capacity of a virus to cause disease in an infected host. It is a quantitative statement of the degree or extent of pathogenesis. In general, a virulent virus causes significant disease, whereas an avirulent or attenuated virus causes no or reduced disease, respectively.

A microbe that causes the disease is called Pathogen. The disease causing microbes like Bacteria, Virus, Fungi, Protozoa, helminths have the potential to cause various infections. Bacterial and Viral diseases are very common. Millions of bacteria normally live on the skin, in the intestines, and on the genitalia which causes Cholera, Leprosy, Trachoma, Buruli ulcer like diseases. The most common type of viral disease is the common cold, Chickenpox, Flu, Infectious mononucleosis, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, pneumonia etc.\r\n

Bacterial Infections

Viral infections

Parasitic infections

Fungal Infections

Blood infectious Diseases

Case studies on various emerging diseases

Clinical Virology incorporates a spectrum of disciplines and information ranging from the X-ray crystallographic structure of viruses and viral proteins to the global socio-economic impact of disease. It encompasses events that include accounts ranging from epidemics impacting history to the identification of new agents and mechanisms of disease. Viruses are important pathogens of the nervous system

Viral oncology is a subdivision of oncology, in these it is concerned with treatment of human cancers /tumours with virus particles. Viruses have long been used as tools to understand basic mechanisms of cancer development and progression. Many cellular proteins crucial in oncogenesis and tumour suppression were first discovered by studying tumour viruses. Approximately 20% of all cancers worldwide results from chronic infections, in specific, up to 15% of human cancers is characterized by a viral aetiology with higher incidence in Developing Countries. Certainly, the infectious nature of specific tumours has important implications in their prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. In the 21st Century, the research on viral oncology field continues to be dynamic, with new significant and original studies on viral oncogenesis and as a translational research from virology for the treatment of cancer. At present, only seven established human tumour viruses are known which include Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), Human Papillomavirus (HPV), Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV), Human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV-1), Human Herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8), and Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV)., but numerous human cancers are suspected to have an infectious etiology that has not yet been identified. Discovery of each human tumour virus has spawned a new research field that has contributed to our understanding of infectious tumours and cancer biology.

Antiviral therapy is one of the most exciting aspects of virology, since it has successfully employed basic science to generate very effective treatments for serious viral infections. Most drugs and vaccines, however, selectively target a single virus, thereby providing a “one drug-one bug” solution. In contrast, broad-spectrum antivirals (BSAs) can cover multiple viruses and genotypes and reduce the likelihood of development of resistance. Therefore, some BSAs can be used for the rapid management of new or drug-resistant viral strains, for a first-line treatment. There are two types of anti-viral therapies depending on the type of virus, they are: "episodic" oral antiviral therapy (where antiviral therapy is used intermittently by the patient during a recurrence), or "suppressive" antiviral therapy (where the antiviral therapy is taken continuously to prevent recurrences).

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are also known as Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) or Venereal Diseases (VD) which are those infections that passed from one person to another through sexual contact. STDs are generally caused by bacteria, yeast, parasites, and viruses. There are more than 20 types of STDs which infect both men and women. It mostly affects Women. Antibiotics can treat STDs. There is probably no cure for STDs initiated by a virus, but medications can often help with the symptoms and keep the infection under control.

HIV and AIDS Nursing Care Management

HIV Diagnosis and Therapy

HIV/AIDS Related Cancer

Co-infections associated with STD

Sexual Health