Day 1 :
I am Pratibha M. currently doing my M.Tech in medical biotechnology at IITH. I have done my B.Tech at PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore on Biotechnology. I hold one year work experience on recombinant protein production and secondary metabolite production from microbes. I have done my UG final year project at Anthem Biosciences, Bangalore. I have qualified GATE examination in the year of 2019 with 94 percentile.
Novel SARS-CoV-2, a bat based virus originated in Wuhan, China caused a global pandemic in December, 2019 belongs to the Betacorona virus family. This virus mostly enters into the respiratory tract of human and enters into the cell through Angiotensin Convertase II (ACE2) receptor which is present in the epithelial layers. SARS-CoV-2 containing a single stranded RNA genome (~29Kbp) enters the cell with the help of Spike (S) protein. Spike protein is a glycoprotein responsible for receptor binding and membrane fusion. The S1 domain of spike protein has an N terminal domain (NTD) and a C-Terminal Domain (CTD). CTD is the receptor binding site. Binding is facilitated when the host cell secretes TMPRSS2 serine protease which cleaves the S1/S2 boundary of spike protein and due to this cleavage, S2 domain undergoes conformational changes and thereby it facilitates the membrane fusion of virus to host cell. Multiple sequence alignment of the spike protein sequence of SARS-CoV-2 shows the number of single amino acid mutation hotspots such as L5F, R214L, R408I, G476S, V483A, H519Q, A520S, T572I, D614G and H655Y. Among these mutations D14G has 57.5% occurrence and G476S, V483A has 7.5% occurrence. The mutated sequences were structured and docked to ACE2 receptor using bioinformatics tool. When the mutated S protein is docked, the ∆G (free energy) value is very minimal in mutated protein and the dissociation constant (Kd) value is higher showed the stability of variants. By the drug repurposing method, 1000 FDA approved drugs were virtually screened for its binding to RBD of S1 domain. Among these Digitoxin, Gliquidone and Zorubicin Hcl binds to spike proteins with more than -8.5 Kcal/mol to both wild type and mutants.
- Novel Antiviral Therapies
In collaboration with Synergy Pharmaceuticals Pty Ltd, NSW, Australia.
Dr Bernard Lucas Middleton, is an infectious diseases physician, scientist and clinical virologist internationally acknowledged for his research on the immunobiology of the herpes virus. His work on microbicide development, and alternative antiviral therapy has been much of his recent principal focus. He was a member of the Centre for HIV and Hepatitis Virology, an institute aimed to combat the impact of HIV and hepatitis. Dr Middleton has previously worked as a physician as a General Practitioner in his earlier years. He then assumed a positon with the State laboratory in Virology. Over the past 20 years he has generated many integral discoveries relating to HSV. His research has been instrumental in defining HSV infections and cell to cell interactions with host immune cells. Specifically focusing on the sacral ganglion and the trigeminal ganglion nerve points, being the initial target infection. Bringing to light new treatments which highlight the process of activation and regulation of macrophages and T Cell applications. His research served to develop a treatment (e.g. 5 core compounds) that aims at the source of infection to eliminate HSV cell to cell infection and viral envelope cessation. His collaborative work on recent studies have made key contributions to human immunology and neurobiology of HSV.
There is an immediate need for alternative anti-herpetic treatment options effective for both primary infections and reoccurring reactivations of herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2). Alternatives currently approved for the purposes of clinical administration includes antivirals and a reduced set of nucleoside analogues. The present article tests a treatment based on a systemic understanding of how the herpes virus affects cell inhibition and breakdown, and targets different phases of the viral cycle, including the entry stage, reproductive cross mutation, and cell-to-cell infection. The treatment consisted of five immunotherapeutic core compounds (5CC), which were hypothesized to be capable of neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies. The tested 5CC were noted as being functional in the application of eliminating the DNA synthesis of herpes viral interferon (IFN) - induced cellular antiviral response. They were here found to neutralize antiviral reproduction by blocking cell-to-cell infection. The activity of the 5CC was tested on RC-37 in vitro using an assay plaque reduction and in vivo against HSV-1 and HSV-2. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 5CC was 0.0009% for HSV-1 plaque formation and 0.0008% for HSV-2 plaque formation. Further tests were performed to evaluate the susceptibility of HSV-1 and HSV-2 to antiherpetic drugs in Vero cells after virus entry. There were high-level markers of the 5CC virucidal activity in viral suspension of HSV-1 and HSV-2. These concentrations of the 5CC are nontoxic and reduced plaque formation by 98.2% for HSV1 and 93.0% for HSV-2. Virus HSV-1 and HSV-2 titers were reduced significantly by 5CC to the point of being negative, ranging 0.01–0.09 in 72%. The results concluded the 5CC as being an effective treatment option for the herpes simplex virus.
- Emerging infectious diseases
Professor Helwan university
Professor Information technology, Helwan university.Emergency delivery should not be offered in the absence of fetal distress or intractable maternal disease. We would like to acknowledge that teamwork and constant care are the epitome of managing every challenging SARS-CoV-2 case during pregnancy with successfully.
The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has significantly affected the healthcare system throughout the past year. Regarding obstetrics, it has been an extremely challenging situation as the infection could have a negative impact on the mother as well as the fetus. The available evidence is limited to a handful of case reports and case series. Consequently, this clinical scenario aims to aid by sharing an interesting experience and enriching the clinical evidence slightly further.
A 25-year old Turkish woman, who was 33 weeks pregnant, with limited English language presented with fever, persistent cough, shortness of breath, anosmia, myalgia, nausea, vomiting, lethargy and responding only to sounds. Five days prior, she tested positive for the new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) using reverse transcription-PCR test. Accordingly, she was admitted and required continuous oxygen support.
Given the severity of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), an emergency Caesarean section (CS) was planned. However, with one to one close observation, prompt planning and multidisciplinary teams (MDT) involving 9 different clinical teams including; obstetrics, medics, anesthetics, respiratory team, critical care outreach, microbiology, physiotherapy, midwives and interpreters, her symptoms improved. Therefore, our plan for CS was deferred, and the patient was discharged 9 days later. Afterwards, she delivered as planned at 39 weeks by elective CS on account of cervical fibroid and previous CS.
The scarcity of data regarding severe SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy and management protocols, in addition to the language barrier gave rise to a uniquely challenging situation.
ARDS on its own isn’t an absolute indication for immediate delivery in COVID-19. We suggest that as long as the oxygen requirement is under control and both mother and baby are otherwise stable, we should avoid delivering an immature baby and risk the outcome of this pregnancy. It was reported that a pregnant woman was mechanically ventilated for 10 days on account of COVID pneumonia; however, she managed to continue her pregnancy successfully for 8 weeks afterwards. An emphasis on the benefits of MDT meetings must be highlighted in such case.
Emergency delivery should not be offered in the absence of fetal distress or intractable maternal disease. We would like to acknowledge that teamwork and constant care are the epitome of managing every challenging SARS-CoV-2 case during pregnancy with successfully.
- Viral Genetics, Evolution and Dynamics
Bakht rud Din is a Bs Microbiologist and Researcher at Aiou University, Islamabad Pakistan.
According the destructions of natural environment, one is the biggest health issues will be face Our this world. Because destruction of natural plants, animals, water bodies etc, will be take revenge from us. This issue will increase day by day, and similarly health issue also surrender us in form of viral infection ,bacterial infections, vector transmission disease, food and drinking water bodies contamination are becoming a part of our communities. For example destruction of forest plants, the animals which are living in there own communities will be become a part of human communities. The migration of these animals and insects will cause transmission of virus, bacteria and other human threating disease.
So these infectious organsims will be make us health issue challenges. It will make us very serous issue for us and we should be discuss all on these issue and natural destruction issue with our communities for further secure our society and health.
- Transplant-Associated Viral Infections
Assistant Professor,NMAM Institute of Technology
Ms. Mangala Shetty Assistant Professor,NMAM Institute of Technology, Nitte. Qualified MCA in 2007 from Mangalore University. Completed Bachelor in Science Mangalore University. Submitted the thesis to VTU, Belgaum. Mangala Shetty authored several research papers on bacteria image processing to name a few, “Efficient 2-D Structuring Element for Noise Removal of Grayscale Images Using Morphological Operators”,”Lactobacillus Cell Segmentation Based on Marker Controlled Watershed Method” Areas of interest includes Bioinformatics, cloud computing, biological image processing
At present many of the analyzes of biological and microbiological data need a significant amount of human involvement. Manual techniques are focused on subjective human perception, are susceptible to considerable variation among human expertise and are time intensive and expensive. Automatic tools are therefore essential to achieve objective and iterative analysis, precise quantitative assessments . A great abundance of bacterial life was exposed using the scanning electron microscope ( SEM). SEM images of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are used in the experiment. The image analysis and classification technique is quick and simple to classify organisms based on their morphological characteristics. The classification results indicate that the proposed methodology is less expensive and it provided results of 81% to 99% with KNN, and with SVM classification hitting 75% to 80% and 98% to 99% with the CNN classifier. The suggested technique could also be effectively incorporated into resources to assist biologists and clinicians in their analytical processes and to incorporate automated diagnostic systems.