Shubhada Bopegamage is a Virologist, an associate professor. Currently she heads the Enterovirus Laboratory and the National Reference Center for Identification of Enteroviruses of the Medical Faculty of the Slovak Medical University, Bratislava, Slovakia. Her work is focussed on the pathogenesis and diagnosis of enteroviruses. She received her BSc. Microbiology degree from Pune, MSc. Microbiology degree from Mumbai, India and PhD in Biological Sciences from the Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow, Russia. She is known in the Enterovirus research since 2005 for her work on the mouse model and oral route of infection of coxsackievirus. She is involved in research and teaching and has guided several MSc. and PhD students. She has co-ordinated and has lead as a principal or co-investigator several national and international projects.
Enteroviruses are human pathogens, ubiquitous in nature and found in all countries of the world. Infections by these viruses are common. A few case reports suggest that enterovirus infection of the mother during pregnancy may lead to preterm births, or slow growth of the fetus, embryopathy and increase the risk of development of chronic diabetes type 1 in children born to these mothers. Our aim was to follow-up the pathophysiological process after coxsackievirus (CV) infection in gravid mice. Selected organ tissues of pregnant mice orally infected with CVB4-E2 at different stages of gravidity (1st, 2nd and 3rd week of gravidity) were checked for quantitative measurement of viral RNA, histopathological changes and multiple cytokines induced simultaneously in sera of pregnant mice were determined. We observed difference in the cytokine levels between the mice infected in 1st, 2nd, and 3rd week of gravidity. High cytokine levels were noted at day 3 post infection (p.i.), further increased levels were observed at day 5 p.i. Cytokines differed in their levels at day 3 p.i. depending on the time of infection during the gravidity. Histopathological changes were observed in the pancreas but not in the hearts of the infected dams. Highest copies of RNA were observed in the heart at day 5 p.i. in mice infected in the 2nd week and in pancreas of dams infected in the 1st week on day 3 p.i. We conclude that time of infection during gravidity influences the severity of the infection, and the innate and adaptive immune responses.
Deproteinization of a flu virus is necessary for its penetration into a cell and this occurs for the account of trypsin-like proteinases of the host’s cell. We assumed that this enzyme has an important role in morphogenesis of flu virus and considerably defines its pathogenic and virulent properties. rnObjective: to study the changes of proteinase and inhibitor activities in the development of influenzal infection at white mice previously infected with flu A virus.rnMethods. We worked with virus of flu of A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) and white mice weighing 16-17 g. For infection of the animals we took virus 2,5-2 LD50 dose. Such a dose provided 100% death of the animals for the 6th day after infection. The animals were slaughtered and took lungs. Blood was taken in 15, 30 min., 1, 6 hours and further in 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 days after infection. In parallel not infected animals were slaughtered and their lungs were taken according to the same terms. In lungs’ homogenate and blood serum we defined infectious, hemagglutinating, proteinase and inhibiting activity and total protein. rnResults. It has been is established that the level of trypsin-like proteinase and its inhibitor in the lungs and blood serum of not infected white mice were in balance at rather high level and did not change considerably during the whole period of supervision (6 days). At infection of white mice with virus of flu A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) there was a violation of proteinase-inhibitory balance. The most profound changes happened during the first hours after infection. There was the growth of proteinase activity and decrease of inhibitory activity. During the maximum accumulation of infectious titer of virus and its hemagglutinin, both proteinase and inhibitory activity was completely suppressed. The animals which didn\'t perish for 5-6 days increase of inhibitory activity and decrease in proteinase took place.rnConclusions. Increase of proteinase activity during the first hours after infection led to increase of infectious and hemagglutinating activity. The increase of inhibitory activity in 5-6 days after infection leads to some arresting of influenzal infection.rn