Day 2 :
Virginia Commonwealth University , USA
Time : 09:00-09:40
Roger M Loria is an Emeritus Professor in Microbiology, Immunology with joint appointments in Pathology and Emergency Medicine. He has obtained his Doctorate from Boston University, Postdoctoral studies by the Massachusetts Heart Association, Greater Boston Chapter and a sabbatical at Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. He is a Research Fellow in Children’s Hospital in Infectious Disease Unit. He has more than 80 publications in peer reviewed journal and more that 25 patents. He is a Member of several Editorial Boards.
β Androstanediol epimers (Δ5 androstane, 3β, 17α diol; and Δ5 androstane, 3β, 17β diol) consist of a metabolic endocrine node which functions to regulate host resistance to infections and malignancies. The β Androstane steroids (17β AED/AET) up-regulate immunity and increase host resistance against lethal infection by viruses, and bacteria. The β Androstenes increase the levels of the TH1 cytokines, IL-2, IL-3, and IFNγ and counteract hydrocortisone mediated immune suppression. Treatment with a single dose of either 17β AED or 17β AET protected the host from whole body lethal radiation and led to the recovery of the remaining hematopoietic precursor cells. Increased host resistance protected the host from lethal infection by DNA or RNA viruses such as herpes virus, coxsackievirus B4, influenza, and arthropod borne viruses. Similar protection against lethal Gram positive and Gram-negative bacteria infections has been observed. The specificity of 17β AED/17β AET is illustrated by the finding that the 17α epimer (17α AED inhibits proliferation and mediates apoptosis in tumor cells of murine and human origin and induces autophagy in human glioblastoma. In summary, these agents provide a unique new avenue for the control, mitigation, and prevention of diseases by viral, bacterial infections. The androstenes are a new subclass of steroid hormones with specific and unique physiological properties.
Time : 09:40-10:20
Sharad Kumar Yadav has 28 years of teaching and research experience and has served to various senior positions of the University including Registrar of the DUVASU University. He is currently Professor, Head of Department of Veterinary Microbiology, and Director at Cow Research Institute at DUVASU, Mathura, India. He has published number of papers in reputed International and National journals and has a vast experience in the arena of BHV-I virus.
Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) is an important viral pathogen negatively affecting the livestock production because of abortion and associated ill effects. BoHV-4 is a member of the genus Rhadinovirus in the sub family Gammaherpesvirinae, belonging to the family Herpesviridae. BoHV 4 can affect cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats, bison and large cats. The property of establishing a latent state in ganglionic neurons after infection allocates the BoHV-4 virus to persist in the body and spread the disease from a latently infected carrier to a non-infected herd. Bovine herpesviruses 4 can generally be transmitted by horizontal and vertical routes. The horizontal transmission occurs by close contact with moist contaminated surfaces, but droplet infections are also common. Vertical transmission via fetal infection occurs during parturition, hence mostly associated with reproductive disorders. Because bovine herpesviruses are highly labile once shed from the body and are readily inactivated by sunlight or drying, milk represents a good candidate as a vehicle for BoHV-4 shedding and transmission. BoHV-4 infection can be diagnosed efficiently by molecular techniques such as PCR, restriction enzyme analysis, detection by probe and Southern hybridization. BoHV-4 has also been isolated by using cell culture propagation, histopathology, serology, PCR, and electron microscopy from animals with symptoms of respiratory and ocular infections, vulvovaginitis, mastitis, abortions, endometritis and even from apparently healthy animals throughout the world. Molecular studies on molecular and phylogenic analysis are scarce but recent studies showed popularity and reliability on advance molecular techniques. Further, molecular studies on BoHV-4 are warranted and needed to know about virus entry into target cells, viral gene expression inside, DNA replication, and phylogenetic relationship with other related Bovine herpes virus for providing proper protection to susceptible animals against hidden threat of BoHV-4. Considering the unusual rate of spread of the infection related with economic aspects, the current study is addressed to discuss comprehensive diagnostic strategy specifically focusing on new upcoming advances in molecular diagnosis of BoHV-4 in different parts of the world