Viruses: Virus structure and expression

Large viruses such as poxviruses or filamentous forms of viruses, such as influenza and Ebola, are simply too large to utilize clathrin-coated pits, caveolae, or other commonly used entry routes. Instead, these viruses trigger internalization by activating macropinocytosis—an example of viruses reprogramming cells to assist virus replication (Marsh and Helenius, 2006).Another important structural feature is the surface of the virion. Enveloped viruses are not stable outside of the human body, and are typically transmitted by transfer of body fluids. In contrast, nonenveloped viruses are much more stable, and many can be transmitted by other mechanisms such as the fecal–oral route—this is how polio and many other GI viruses are transmitted. Hepatitis, from contaminated shellfish for example, is caused by hepatitis A, a nonenveloped virus that is stable outside of the human body. In contrast, hepatitis B and C viruses have envelopes, and are transmitted by sexual contact or by blood. The Caliciviruses that cause outbreaks of diarrhea on cruise ships are nonenveloped, making transmission by fomites much easier and sterilization more difficult.


  • Pseudoviruses
  • Proteomics & Genomics
  • Viriods
  • Prions
  • Defective Viruses
  • Viriods
  • Influenza Virus
  • Hepatitis C Virus I
  • Retroviruses
  • The Simian Viruses / Rhinoviruses
  • Lyssaviruses
  • Arenaviruses
  • The Baculoviruses
  • Ebolaviruses
  • Poxviruses

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