Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 11th International Virology Summit Valencia, Spain.

Day 1 :

Keynote Forum

Vsevolod A Zinserling

Saint-Petersburg University, Russia

Keynote: HIV Infection and its complications from pathologist’s point of view

Time : 11:10-11:50

Conference Series Euro Virology 2019 International Conference Keynote Speaker Vsevolod A Zinserling photo
Biography:

Prof. Dr.med.sci.Vsevolod Zinserling is pathologist working in the field of infectology in Saint-Petersburg, Russia. His research is devoted to  viral, bacterial, fungal and mycoplasma lesions of brain, lung, liver, intestine, placenta on autopsy, clinical and experimental material. Investigations of pathomorphology of Influenza, HIV and its complications, infections due to herpes viruses, viral hepatitis, mixed infections of different localisation are of special interest. Prof. V.A. Zinserling is collaborating at Saint-Petersburg University, Center of infectious pathology at S.P. Botkin hospital for infectious diseases and department of pathomorphology in the Institute of Experimental medicine at National Medical Research Center named after V.A. Almazov. He is active member of European Society of Pathology (working groups infectious diseases, autopsy pathology and history of pathology).  Author of more than 400 publications.

Abstract:

HIV infection remains one of the most dangerous diseases and important causes of death. Numerous investigations are devoted to problems of epidemiology, molecular biology, treatment, psychology etc. The number of studies discussing the results of pathological studies is very limited. Having long term experience in HIV pathology, we can formulate the following items. Most important questions to be studied on the autopsies of the deceased from HIV-infection: exact list of secondary infections and tumors with specification of their localization; evaluation of the efficacy of treatment; revealing of immediate death cause; collection of specimen for further investigations in order to study the mechanisms of the disease and its complications. Methods recommended for postmortem investigation are detailed histological study of all macroscopically changed and not changed organs with use of certain special staining; bacteriological and mycological investigation of all suspected lesions in order to clarify their etiology and certain properties of the pathogens; different virological, molecular-biological methods and immunohistochemistry in order to study the localization of lesions due to HIV and other viruses and some of their properties. Among the most interesting, important and not sufficiently known changes we pay special attention to the brain. We have to distinguish direct and indirect lesions due to HIV virus itself, other pathogens (CMV, Toxoplasma, Cryptococcus, HSV, JCV, EBV first of all) and other influences and follow up them in different decades of epidemics. Some clinico-pathological correlations in perinatal HIV: viral load in pregnant women correlated with the depth of immunosuppression; women without antiretroviral treatment had more expressed grade of immunosuppression; frequency of secondary purulent inflammation correlated with the grade of immunosuppression. Main probable pathogenic mechanisms of Placenta lesion in HIV: direct lesions of placenta macrophages (Hofbauer cells), endotheliocytes and decidual cells with development of typical changes of nuclei, leading role in inflammatory reaction of CD14+ in comparison with CD68+ cells; disturbance of angiogenesis due to hyper expression of anti-angiogenic factor TGFβ; probable disturbances of syncytial-capillary membrane. Main questions for further investigations: clarifying incidence and etiology of placenta inflammation and intrauterine infections in women with HIV; further studies of mechanisms of placenta lesions in HIV infected women; clinico-pathological correlations between morphological changes in placenta and outcome of pregnancy versus antiretroviral treatment; Clinico-pathological correlations between symptoms in children from HIV-infected mothers and post-mortem histology; studying impact of prenatal infections on development of children and morbidity of teenagers and adults. Question for the life-time pathological and cytological diagnostics are study of smears or liquid biopsies of cerebrospinal fluid for evaluating mycobacterium, cryptococci and tumour cells, lymph node biopsies in order to identify the origin of their lesion, needle biopsies of other organs due to clinical necessity.

 

Keynote Forum

Iva Christova

National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Bulgaria

Keynote: Vector borne infections in Bulgaria

Time : 11:50-12:30

Conference Series Euro Virology 2019 International Conference Keynote Speaker Iva Christova photo
Biography:

Iva Christova is a Professor of Microbiology at the National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases (NCIPD), Sofia, Bulgaria. She is the Deputy Director of NCIPD and Head of National reference vector-borne pathogens laboratory. She published more than 65 papers in reputed journals. Her research interest is focused on ecology, epidemiology, laboratory diagnosis and clinical manifestations of tick-borne and mosquito-borne pathogens. For her outstanding research, she was awarded Morrison Rogosa Award for 2003 from American Society for Microbiology and numerous Bulgarian awards, e.g. award for the most successful young scientist, award for the best research work and award for contribution in medicine. Her area of research interest includes vector-borne.

 

Abstract:

Located in Southeastern Europe, Bulgaria is an endemic country for Lyme borreliosis and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) and is affected by West Nile virus (WNV). In addition, sporadic cases of Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) have been also reported. About 500 cases of Lyme borreliosis are detected annually in Bulgaria. Two peaks in the seasonal distribution of cases and more frequent presentation of neuroborreliosis than of Lyme arthritis appear to be characteristics of Lyme borreliosis in the country. With sporadic cases or small outbreaks, CCHF appeared every year. More than 1600 CCHF cases were officially recorded since 1952. Genetic investigations showed that CCHF virus strains causing disease in the country belong to lineage Europe 1. However, two CCHF virus lineages, Europe 1 and Europe 2, are present in ticks in Bulgaria. CCHF seroprevalence among healthy population is 3.7%. In 2018, number of detected WNV human cases in Bulgaria exceeded the total number in the previous seven years, following the same trend in the other affected EU countries. WNV lineage 2 was confirmed as a cause of the human cases. Overall WNV seroprevalence in human population in the country is 1.5%. Tick-borne encephalitis is very unusual. Only a few cases of TBE have been detected. Overall seroprevalence of 0.6% for TBE virus was found in humans.

Keynote Forum

Mohammad Mir

Western University of Health Sciences, USA

Keynote: Hantavirus RdRp requires a host cell factor for Cap Snatching

Time : 17:00-17:40

Conference Series Euro Virology 2019 International Conference Keynote Speaker Mohammad Mir photo
Biography:

Mohammad Mir did his PhD from Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Atomic Energy of India in 2003. He then Moved to University of New Mexico for his Postdoctoral training in Virology, where he worked with hemorrhagic fever viruses. He then joined the University of Kansas, School of Medicine as Assistant Professor in Virology in the year 2009. In 2015, he joined the Western University of Health Sciences, California, as Associate Professor in Virology. His research program at Western University is focused on replication and therapeutic intervention of emerging negative strand RNA viruses.       

 

 

Abstract:

The hantavirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) snatches 5' capped mRNA fragments from the host cell transcripts and uses them as primers to initiate transcription and replication of the viral genome in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Hantavirus nucleocapsid protein (N protein) binds to the 5' caps of host cell mRNA and protects them from the attack of cellular decapping machinery. N protein rescues long capped mRNA fragments in cellular P bodies that are later processed by an unknown mechanism to generate 10- to 14-nucleotide-long capped RNA primers with a 3' G residue. Hantavirus RdRp has an N-terminal endonuclease domain and a C-terminal uncharacterized domain that harbors a binding site for the N protein. The purified endonuclease domain of RdRp nonspecifically degraded RNA in vitro. It is puzzling how such nonspecific endonuclease activity generates primers of appropriate length and specificity during cap snatching. We fused the N-terminal endonuclease domain with the C-terminal uncharacterized domain of the RdRp. The resulting NC mutant, with the assistance of N protein, generated capped primers of appropriate length and specificity from a test mRNA in cells. Bacterially expressed and purified NC mutant and N protein required further incubation with the lysates of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) for the specific endonucleolytic cleavage of a test mRNA to generate capped primers of appropriate length and defined 3' terminus in vitro. Our results suggest that an unknown host cell factor facilitates the interaction between N protein and NC mutant and brings the N protein-bound capped RNA fragments in close proximity to the endonuclease domain of the RdRp for specific cleavage at a precise length from the 5' cap. These studies provide critical insights into the cap-snatching mechanism of cytoplasmic viruses and have revealed potential new targets for their therapeutic intervention.

 

Keynote Forum

Reza Nassiri

Michigan State University, USA

Keynote: Antimicrobial resistance in HIV patients

Time : 09:30-10:10

Conference Series Euro Virology 2019 International Conference Keynote Speaker Reza Nassiri photo
Biography:

Reza Nassiri is a former Associate Dean of Global Health at the Michigan State University. He also served as the MSU Director of Institute of International Health. He is currently Professor of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Professor of Family and Community Medicine and Lecturer in Global Health, Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine. He currently works on international public health issues relating to chronic diseases and has expertise in global health. He has made contributions in various fields of medical sciences including clinical investigation and health education. He had served as an Editorial Board Member for the journal of HIV and AIDS Review. He is currently on Editorial Board Member for AIDS Patient Care and STDs, J of AIDS Clin Res., and Int. J. of Global Health. He is the Founder of Michigan State University Osteopathic and Primary Health Clinic in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. His research interests include Clinical Pharmacology of HIV/AIDS, Viral Pathogenesis, Antibiotic Resistance, Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases, Tropical Medicine, Global health and Community-based Public Health Interventions.

 

 

Abstract:

According to the WHO, there is an estimated 36.7 million people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). While antiretroviral drug resistance is a common genetic trait of HIV which often results in treatment failure, there is a paucity of information of the development of antibiotic resistance in HIV patients. Along with the CD4 cells, HIV targets other cells of the immune system resulting in immunodeficiency, and thus, such a weakened immune response increases opportunity for bacterial, fungal and other viral infections. Pathogens such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Salmonella, Hemophilus, Staph aureus, E. coli, Klebsiella and Pseudomonas are the risk pathogens that are encountered in HIV patients. However, the frequency of bacterial infections which are especially common in the lower CD4 counts, necessitate more administration of antibiotics either for prophylaxis or treatment purposes. One of the most clinically challenging threats is the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) that impedes the antimicrobial treatment of infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae in HIV patients and is a serious threat to the practice of modern medicine. Antimicrobial resistance in general, is a global health concern within the scientific community. Failure of recognizing antibiotic resistance in HIV/AIDS patients can further complicate the overall therapeutic strategy of the containment of HIV and can also lead to a more compromised quality of life in HIV patients. In summary, antibiotic resistance poses a threat to everyone, but people living with HIV/AIDS are at more significant risk.

 

Keynote Forum

Tariq M Rana

University of California San Diego, USA

Keynote: Targeting Vif regulatory Axis: developing new AIDS therapies

Time : 10:10-10:50

Conference Series Euro Virology 2019 International Conference Keynote Speaker Tariq M Rana photo
Biography:

Tariq M Rana is a Scholar, Inventor, Entrepreneur and Multidisciplinary Scientist who is developing new therapies to treat infectious disease, cancer and immune disorders. He is a Professor and Chief of Genetics, V/C for Innovation in Therapeutics in the Department of Pediatrics at the University of California San Diego, School of Medicine, where his laboratory employs mechanisms and technologies of RNA, stem cells and chemical biology to discover new pathways implicated in human disease.

 

Abstract:

The human host is invaded by a wide range of microbial pathogens and has evolved a number of defensive mechanisms to survive these infections. In addition to adaptive immunity, it is becoming increasingly clear that innate immunity plays an important role in protecting host organisms from infections. One of the innate immune response mechanisms against viral infections involves a protein family, APOBEC3 (apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide 3). The APOBEC3 family of proteins can restrict replication of exogeneous retorviruses as well as Hepatitis B, a DNA virus that replicates through an RNA intermediate, and inhibit replication of retrotransposons. APOBEC3G (A3G) protein exhibits the most potent block to HIV-1 replication. To counteract host defense, HIV-1 expresses Vif protein that targets A3G for proteasomal degradation. Since HIV-1 Vif has no known cellular homologs, this protein represents an extremely attractive, yet unrealized, target for antiviral intervention. I will discuss the strategies to develop therapeutics that antagonize HIV-1 Vif function to inhibit HIV-1 replication. Further mechanistic investigation will be presented showing that Vif inhibitors’ function requires Vif-A3G interactions and restores A3G function. These studies provide proof of principle that the HIV-1 Vif-A3G axis is a valid target for developing small molecule-based new therapies for AIDS or for enhancing innate immunity against viruses.

 

 

  • Speaker Session
Location: valencia

Chair

Francisco José Sanz Santaeufemia

Teaching Children Hospital Niño Jesús, Spain

Co-Chair

Vsevolod A Zinserling

Saint-Petersburg University, Russia

Session Introduction

Francisco José Sanz Santaeufemia

Teaching Children Hospital Niño Jesús, Spain

Title: Adolescent in risk of sexual transmitted diseases: knowing alarm symptoms, follow-up and prevention

Time : 13:40-14:00

Biography:

Francisco José Sanz Santaeufemia works as a pediatrician in one of the oldest children hospital in Western Europe located in Madrid. His expertise skills include General Pediatrics and children infectious diseases. Nowadays mycobacterial, parasitic or sexual transmitted infections are his preferred topics.

 

Abstract:

Teenage is a turbulent time of life which, according to the WHO, covers the 10-20 years of age period. Physicals and psychological changes appear explosively which drives individuals to have increased risk of approaching to new dangerous behaviour as contact with drugs or inappropriate beginning of love relationships, In this topic they can suffer social (unwanted pregnancy) or medical stigmas (sexual transmitted diseases STD). Overall incidence of STD has uploaded in recent years depending on different factors present in adolescents as minimization of risk, abuse of alcohol/drugs or avoids anticonception methods in sexual relations. Different STD´s are classified in four groups: Urethritis-cervicitis, genital ulcers, leukorrhea and anogenital warts; with multiple microorganisms implicated in all of them. Most of STD´s are asymptomatic, so active search and a high index of suspicion is mandatory to afford this growing problem in young people. Moreover, we will make general screening in selected people. In this paper we will make a brief summary of each STD explaining its signs, diagnosis test and recommended therapy insisting into the need of early detection, correct therapy and investigation of sexual partners for cutting epidemic expansion. Depending on the type of lesion (ulcer, vaginal discharge, urethral secretion…) will suspect distinct bacteria and until establishing the proper diagnosis we will treat the adolescent with an empiric therapy covering all possible microorganisms able to produce this symptoms. After treatment we will make sure a new appointment for confirming clinical recovery, asking for other sexual contacts and their study. Finally, we will give some recommendations as a Decalogue for using at the office in the directed interview with this kind of young people, neither children nor adults.

 

Yury A Tyulenev

Central Research Institute of Epidemiology-Moscow, Russia

Title: Sexually transmitted infections among HIV-positive men who have sex with men in Moscow

Time : 14:00-14:20

Biography:

Yury A Tyulenev has completed his Graduation at Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology named after K I Skryabin in 2009; PhD from The Institute of Virology named after D.I. Ivanovsky, Moscow, Russia in 2013 and his Postdoctoral studies from Calgary University, Calgary, Canada. Since 2017, he has been working on sexually transmitted infections epidemiology among MSM.

 

Abstract:

Background: There is a strong association between HIV-infection and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in MSM all over the world. Social stigma leads to further expansion of various STIs among MSM in Russia. Yet studies are lacking on the prevalence of sexually transmitted pathogens among MSM attending medical clinics for a routine medical checkup in the country. Therefore, the goal of our research is to determine the prevalence of gonorrhea, chlamydial infection, M. genitalium-infection, and syphilis among HIV-positive MSM.

Methods: 381 MSM living with HIV were recruited through clinics and non-governmental organizations. To evaluate the prevalence of STIs three probes from each patient were collected: first void urine (FVU), pharyngeal and rectal swabs (PS and RS). The samples were tested for DNA of N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, M. genitalium, Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) I and II, T. pallidum in PCR.

Results: The prevalence of STDs in FVU: N. gonorrhoeae-1.6% (6/381), C. trachomatis-3.7% (14/381), M. genitalium-1.3% (5/381), T. pallidum-0.5% (2/381). In RS: N. gonorrhoeae-11.3% (43/381), C. trachomatis-18.4% (70/381), M. genitalium-4.7% (18/381), T. pallidum-3.4% (13/381). In PS: N. gonorrhoeae-6.8% (26/381), C. trachomatis-6.8% (26/381), M. genitalium-0.8% (3/381) and T. pallidum-4.2% (16/381).

Conclusions: The prevalence of STIs was high among HIV-positive MSM. Extragenital testing for STIs in MSM is a first priority issue as STD-cases were found in RS and PS more frequently (p=0.001). There is a strong need to promote an education campaign about sexual risk behavior that can prevent new cases of infection.

Ashley Shay Duncan

University of Nottingham-School of Health Sciences, UK

Title: Routine opt-out HIV testing in critical care

Time : 15:00-15:20

Biography:

Ashley Shay Duncan is a Registered Nurse who has a critical care back ground, whilst having a great interest in HIV care. She has presented her BSc Adult Nursing dissertation at the National HIV Nurses Association Conference in 2016 regarding HIV related stigma. She is currently working for the East Midlands Ambulance service assessing and triaging the 999 emergencies whilst undertaking a Masters in Advanced Nursing with the University of Nottingham. During her Msc course, she has completed a literature review regarding the benifits of testing critically ill patients for HIV.

 

 

Abstract:

Background: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a chronic sexually transmitted disease which profoundly attacks the body’s immune system, by destroying fundamental white blood cells. HIV has had a detrimental impact on global health since it’s outbreak in the 1980’s. Presenting as a universal epidemic, challenges are faced which requires the public health sector to ensure all efforts are being made to reduce the momentum of HIV. Offering critically ill patients a routine opt-out HIV test may aid clinical decision making, whilst alleviating the effects of missed or late HIV diagnosis. Literature supports that HIV positive (HIV+) critical care patients are often unaware of their HIV status, whilst presenting with life threatening conditions, such as sepsis. Mortality rates linked with sepsis or septic shock remain more prevalent in patients with HIV; and sepsis has been identified as the most common cause of death amongst critically ill patients. Patients living with HIV presenting in critical care have complex health needs, and these are further enhanced when patients are yet to be diagnosed. Missed or late HIV diagnosis has a crippling effect on individual’s mortality, morbidity, onwards transmission and healthcare costs; therefore testing this population may provide practice development (PD).

Methods: A review of literature has been utilised in order to gather quality research which assess, evaluate and integrate appropriate practices.

Results: Op-out HIV testing would help to contain the epidemic and reduce infection rates; whilst enabling individuals to have rapid access to care. Due to an ageing population presenting with multiple comorbidities and an increase in complex care needs, acute care is becoming more challenging. Such striking truths in regards to the reality of critical care nursing can be said about patients with HIV. HIV+ patients are at a furthered increased risk of developing other comorbidities, as they are also an ageing population. This correlation informs that HIV+ patients would therefore be recognised as a sector of the population which may add to the acuity of critical care settings, supporting the necessity for routine testing.

Conclusion: Opt-out HIV testing is recognised as an area for PD within critical care sectors. The need for change is apparent, however more research is required as cultural and ethical barriers persist which hinders development within this realm of HIV nursing care.

 

Alieu Sidibeh

Jagleh Service, Gambia

Title: Problems associated with sexually transmitted diseases

Time : 15:20-15:40

Biography:

Abstract:

An estimate of 36.9 million people globally was living with HIV in 2017. Out of which 21.7 million people were accessing antiretroviral therapy in 2017. Furthermore, 1.8 million people became newly infected with HIV in 2017. Moreover 940,000 people died from AIDS-related illnesses in 2017. About 77.3 million people have become infected with HIV since the start of the epidemic and 35.4 million people have died from AIDS-related illnesses since the start of the epidemic. The most frequent route of HIV transmission is sexual contacts. The majority of all infections are transmitted through heterosexual contacts. HIV particularly affects adolescents and young people (15 to 24 years old). Men who have sex with men are at a higher risk of HIV transmission if there is no use of protection as it may involve anal sex. Sex between men is stigmatized, officially denied and criminalized in various parts of the world. Sex workers may be stigmatized in the same way as MSM, they usually have multiple sexual partners. HIV prevalence amongst prisoners is between 2 and 50 times those of general adult populations. Prisons are at high-risk environment for HIV transmission with drug use, and needle sharing, tattooing with homemade and unsterile equipment and high-risk sex and rape. Every year, over 500 million people acquire one of the following four sexually transmitted diseases (STIs): chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis or trichomonas. HIV-related stigma and discrimination affect a pregnant woman's decision to enroll in PMTCT programs and interrupt adherence to treatment and retention in care. It has been estimated that over 50 percent of vertical HIV transmissions from mother-to-child globally, can be attributed to the cumulative effect of stigma when accessing PMTCT services.

 

Biography:

Dr Paulo Antonio Rodrigues Gouveia National and International authorized medical registry: CRM-2107-TO, Brazil. Registry identifier in the National Council of Scientific and Technological Development CNPq Scientific registration address:  Name in bibliographic citations: GOUVEIA, P. A. R. I work in the Government of the State of Tocantins in 1990. I work as a doctor at the Regional Hospital of Araguaína 2007. I work in volunteering to help in medical attention in 2011. He works as a doctor in the Government of the State of Tocantins currently (2015). Laboratory Experience: Scientific expert laboratory technician at the Hospital of Diseases and Tropical Diseases (HDT), Brazil - State of Tocantins

 

 

Abstract:

This study aims to analyze the therapeutic use of Guazulma ulmifolia Lam. extract as an AIDS treatment, describing the management of treatment performed in a clinical report. This work was a literature review. The case reported was a 35-year-old Mozambican, diagnosed with HIV virus in 2008 in March of 2017 she started using Guazulma ulmifolia Lam. extract for 30 days, and has since received successive negative HIV test results. It was concluded that the efficacy of Guazulma has been increasingly proven for the treatment of AIDS, with the advantages being a natural remedy, without any side effects and there is no ethical-moral impediment to be applied in infected population.

 

Biography:

Abstract:

Eswatini is a small landlocked country in the world with 27.4% of adults living with HIV. In 2017, 7,000 adults were newly infected with HIV and 3,500 people died of an AIDS related illness. Over the last decade Eswatini has made significant progress on its HIV epidemic. HIV prevalence is stabilizing and the number of new infections among adults has newly halved since, 2011, an achievement largely made possible and by rapidly scaling up the number of people accessing antiretroviral treatment. At 85%, it has one of the highest rates of antiretroviral treatment coverage in Sub-Saharan Africa, and it has also increased its own domestic investment and funding for the HIV response. Nevertheless, the huge amount of people living with HIV in Eswatini means it is still the country’s biggest public health concern. According to 2015 estimates, life expectancy in the country is 57 years for men and 61 years for women. Mbabane government hospital is the biggest hospital in Eswatini with the highest number of patients with HIV. Its laboratories are working hard for supporting patients with HIV. Medical laboratories have always played an essential role in determining clinical decisions and providing clinicians with information that assists in the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and management of diseases in the developed world. Mbabane central laboratory is a referral laboratory operating at Mbabane government hospital under ministry of health in Eswatini. The Central laboratory provide service routinely to all facilities with limited or without the capacity to perform simple or complex tests, it also serve a national back up for laboratory services. The scope of testing includes: Serology, Immunochemistry, Chemistry and Flowcytometry. The central laboratory runs about 45,356 tests in a year with an average of 3,779 tests per month. Flowcytometry is a biophysical technology in cells counting, cells sorting, biomarkers detection, by suspending them in the stream of fluids and passing them to the electronically detection. It is the department which is monitoring patients with HIV by counting their CD4 before starting the antiretroviral treatment or when they are under treatment. This department can receive more than 2,500 samples of blood per month for CD4 Count or more than 30,000 samples per year. And all the results are sent to the clinicians for a good care of patients with HIV.

 

 

Kiyemba Ronald

Kitanda Community-based Organization/Healthcare, Uganda

Title: Poverty increased the spread of HIV/AIDS and others in Uganda

Time : 16:40-17:00 T

Biography:

Kiyemba Ronald Coach for Uganda National cycling, holding a Degree in Sports Science. President, KITANDA CARE for HIV/AIDS & UTI infections control. Company Owner, Bike 2 Bike tours (U) LTD

 

Abstract:

In Uganda, research made in 2016 show that 1.4 million people live with HIV and other related UTI. 52000 people get infected newly. 28,000 die of HIV/AIDS and other related illness. Research has shown that HIV is one of the important outcomes of poverty in Uganda having more than 35% of Ugandans living below poverty line of 1US$ daily. As a result of this, people especially women indulge into risky behaviour such as commercial sex which can provide them with basic survival resources for themselves and their dependents. Commonest behaviour that has increased the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections include: Cultural poverty that results in forced teenage marriages by their parents for material gain. Women do commercial sexual transaction to raise basic needs and most of them being widows left alone with children who need feeding, hospital bills etc. House helps being seduced by their bosses, employers demanding for sex in exchange for jobs. Institution bosses abusing young less privileged girls for sex in exchange for admissions and also teachers demanding for sex in exchange for marks Muslim culture of polygamy which has increased the risk of multiple cross infections. Much as information through health education and counseling about the risks has reached the poor, it sometimes seems irrelevant given the reality of their poor standards of living. Therefore, luck of incentive resources has made it difficult for the poor communities to adapt to the recommend behaviour. Government should provide employment opportunities within the communities, restrictions should be put on alcohol and observed within the local communities, health and education care.

 

Biography:

Faiza A Fattouh has completed her PhD at Purdue University, USA. She is currently an Emeritus Professor of Virology at Alexandria University. She has served as a Head of the Botany and Microbiology Department of the Faculty of Science, Alexandria-University, Egypt. She has over 35 publications in National and International reputable journals. She has acted as Principle Investigator in over 10 International Cooperative projects in the field of Plant Virology. She is on the Editorial Board and served as Reviewer to several scientific publications. Her research interest includes Identification, molecular characterization and phylogenetic studies on plant viruses of economically important hosts in Egypt.

 

Abstract:

Potato Virus is the second most important food crop in Egypt in terms of yield and cash value. Virus infection is a major factor which affects production and tuber quality. Detection of several different potato viruses has been reported in some studies; yet, few limited studies addressed the genetic characterization of such viruses. PVY is a major virus affecting potato and is of worldwide distribution. The aim of this work is to elucidate more information on PVY genetic diversity in Egypt. Following several surveys for the detection of major viruses affecting potato in different geographic governorates, some PVY isolates were subjected to molecular characterization by means of immuno-capture RT-PCR and also full genome sequencing. Multiple recombinant types of PVY were distinguished. At least 3 recombinant strains previously associated with potato tuber necrotic ringspot disease (PTNRD), including a novel recombinant were identified. These findings suggest the presence of PTNRD-inducing virus strains infecting potato.

 

Biography:

Khaled A Habeb has experience in teaching and supervision on both undergraduate and post graduate students. He has taught different subjects belonging to microbiology such as medical microbiology, clinical mycology, microbial toxins and microbial physiology. He has experience in evaluation and improving of probiotics application.

 

Abstract:

Noroviruses (NoVs) are the most commonly recognized foodborne viral infection and second only to Rotavirus (RV) as a cause of severe diarrhea in children. The high burden of infection is because of their stability in the extreme environment condition, diversity of strains and low infectious dose ranging between 10-100 virus particles which are enough to infect individual. Nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the junction of open reading frame one (ORF1) and the open reading frame two (ORF2) and fragments of 60/81 (74.07%) positive samples results found that the appearance of five genotypes: GGII.4, GGII.2, GGII.17, GGI, GGI.3 ACCESSION KU291998.1; KU292999.1; KU292001.1: ACCESSION KU292002.1; KU292003.1; KU292004.1; KU292005.1; KU744839.1. The NVGII.4 was the most dominant strain with frequency percentage 61.6% and the higher frequency percentage 50% was belongs to the recombinant. It has been suggested that recombination could be an important mechanism by which GII.4 remains persistent in human population.