Day 2 :
University of Erlangen-Nuernberg & Cologne University, Germany
Keynote: Discoveries with the adenovirus type-12 system: Integration of viral DNA and epigenetic consequences
Time : 10:00-10:30
Walter Doerfler has completed Munich Medical School (LMU), Doctor of Medicine thesis in Anatomy and Internships in Munich and Trenton, NJ, USA. He did his Postdoctoral studies in Molecular Genetics at the Max-Planck-Institute for Biochemistry in Munich and in the Department of Biochemistry, Stanford University Medical School.
The human adenovirus type-12 (Ad12) system has been used to investigate basic mechanisms in molecular biology and viral oncology. Ad12 replicates in human cells, but undergoes a completely abortive cycle in Syrian hamster cells. Ad12 induces neuro ectodermal tumors in newborn hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Each tumor cell or Ad12-transformed hamster cell carries multiple copies of integrated Ad12 DNA. Ad12 DNA usually integrates at one chromosomal site which is not specific; Ad12 DNA can integrate at many different locations. Virion or free intracellular Ad12 DNA remains unmethylated at CpG sites, whereas the integrated viral genomes become de novo methylated. Inverse correlations between Ad12 promoter methylation and activity were described for the first time in this system and initiated active research in the field of DNA methylation and epigenetics. Promoter methylation is an important factor in long-term gene silencing. We have also discovered that the insertion of foreign (Ad12, bacteriophage lambda, plasmid) DNA into mammalian genomes can lead to genome-wide alterations in methylation and transcription patterns in the recipient genomes. This concept has been verified recently in a pilot study with human cells which had been rendered transgenomic for a 5.6 kbp bacterial plasmid. Currently, we study epigenetic effects in Ad12 infected cells and in Ad12 induced hamster tumor cells. These genome-wide epigenetic alterations are considered crucial elements in (viral) oncogenesis.
Riga Stradins University, Latvia
Time : 10:30-11:00
Angelika Krumina is a leading Researcher in Infectology field in Riga East Clinical University Hospital. She is a Scientific Expert of Latvian Academy of Sciences, Board Member of Latvian Medical Association and Member of European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. During 2011-2012, she was a Project Coordinator in State Program of Latvian Academy of Sciences. Currently she is a Work Package 6 Leader in Latvia of Baltinfect project of the Seventh Framework Program (FP7) of the European Commission.
The MHC II genes encode the polymorphic-DR and DQ molecules, Lyme disease (Lyme borreliosis) is infectious vector-borne diseases which has a large polymorphism of clinical manifestations and caused at least three species of bacteria of the genus Borrelia: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto dominated as the causative agent of Lyme disease in the United States, whereas Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii in Latvia and Europe. One of the major unsolved problems of today is the study of the interactions of organism and pathogens genospecies Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb). In this connection particular interest is the analysis of one of the major systems of the body controlled by the immune response-complex HLA including the identification of possible associations of HLA genotypes with clinical features of Lyme disease. Although various factors participate in the immune response to infection (e.g., intensity of the infection and T-cell functioning), the interaction of these mechanisms with genetic factors seems to be important in determining the evolution of the disease. Furthermore, the immune response to infections varies from one individual to another, on account of the polymorphism of the genes that influence this response. HLA antigens may act alone or in combination with other genes, conferring susceptibility to, or protection against infectious diseases. The obtained results suggest that the inflammatory events of the sub acute arthritis can set the stage for development of chronic disease in individuals possessing an risk haplotypes. In particular, the haplotypes HLA-DRB1*15:01:01/DQA1*01:02:01/DQB1*03:02:01, (OR=8.34; p<0.013); -DRB1*01:01:01/DQA1*03:01:01/DQB1*03:02:01, (OR=6.17; p<0.027) and -DRB1*03:01:01/DQA1*01:01:01/DQB1*05:01:01, (OR=2.66; p<0.032) contributes definitely to a genetic predisposition to Borrelia burgdorferi infection in Latvian population which may have implications in our understanding of pathogenesis of this disease. Knowledge of the mechanisms of genetic protection against and susceptibility to infectious diseases is one of the important steps towards controlling them in endemic areas and contributes to our understanding of both the pathogenic and protective mechanisms of these processes. The mechanisms of immune response to infection that are influenced by the HLA genes may be the key to future vaccines using the peptides of organisms that mimic the HLA antigens.
Osaka University, Japan
Time : 11:00-11:30
Kunihiro Kaihatsu has received his PhD in Organic Chemistry and Nucleic Acid Chemistry from Kobe University, Japan. He has served as an Associate Professor in the Department of Organic Fine Chemistry in the Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Japan. He has received several awards from Chemical Society of Japan, International Society of Antiviral Research, Biobusiness Competition Japan Award in 2009 & 2010 and other research societies. He is currently focusing on developing diagnostic methods in virology using nucleic acid chemistry.
Molecular tools that can rapidly identify virus in clinical specimen are important for achieving therapeutic success and preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) is a DNA/RNA analogue that possesses a neutral amide backbone instead of phosphate backbone and thus efficiently binds to DNA without having electrostatic repulsion. Currently, we synthesized PNAs derivatized with different types of intercalators via an amide linkage at the N-terminus. Their intercalators increased PNA binding affinity to matched DNA; however, most of them also increased the binding efficiency to mismatched DNA. On the other hand, PNA derivatives with tolane selectively improve the binding affinity to the matched sequence, but not to the mismatched sequence. In this paper, we synthesized a series of PNA-tolane conjugates and measured UV melting temperature (Tm) with target ssDNA and ssRNA. Molecular dynamics simulations and thermodynamic studies were also performed to discuss the mode of actions of PNA-tolane derivatives against ssDNA and ssRNA. PNA-tolanes were also used to discriminate a neuraminidase inhibitor-resistant influenza A virus gene on our novel type of nucleic acid chromatography system.
Poster Session 11:50-13:10
Lunch Break:13:10-13:55 @ Salamanca