Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 10th World Congress on Virology and Mycology Singapore.

Day 2 :

  • Viral Pathogenesis and latency, Virulence

Session Introduction

Jyoti Somani

Alexandra Health, Khoo Teck Puat Hospital, Singapore

Title: Viruses and fungi do the “darndest” things
Biography:

Dr. Somani is from the U.S.A. and after completing Medical School at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, she completed her Internal Medicine Residency training at the University of Chicago Hospitals followed by a three year Infectious Disease Fellowship at Emory University. Her research focus was on T-cell immunity and vaccines in Bone Marrow Transplant patients. She was an Assistant Professor at Emory University where she focused on Transplant ID as well as general ID and HIV. She then spent 4 years in Chennai, India where she was involved in an HIV/AIDS and Leadership Training Fellowship. She then spent time in private practice in Infectious Diseases back in the U.S. Most recently she was in Jakarta, Indonesia where she was a Consultant for the Siloam Lippo Hospital group. Since Nov 2014, she has been a Senior Consultant in Infectious Disease for Alexandra Health/KTPH  in Singapore.  

Abstract:

This plenary talk will be a case based discussion of two proven, serious viral infections in immunocompetent patients as well as a fatal fungal infection in a foreign worker.  The discussion for the viral infections will focus on the immune system response to viral infections versus the pathogenicity of the viruses themselves. The differential diagnosis and work up of infectious etiologies of transverse myelitis will be discussed. Finally, the latest data on the risk of primary varicella and H. Zoster in patients who received primary vaccination with the chicken pox vaccine will be reviewed.

The case based discussion about the invasive fungal infection in a young foreign worker will include a discussion on the iatrogenic risk factors for fungal infections. There will also be a focused review on the changing epidemiology of fungal and yeast infections in relatively immune-competent patients as well as the optimal activity of the newer anti-fungal agents against the more unusual yeast and fungi that are more commonly being seen. In the era of newer anti-fungal agents it is important to know the nuances of the spectrum of activity as well as the various sites of penetration (CSF, bone, etc..) for these medications.  

  • Neurovirology

Session Introduction

Parul Jain

King George’s Medical University, India

Title: Etiology of acute encephalitis cases in South East Asia
Speaker
Biography:

Parul Jain is MD in Microbiology and has specialized in virology. She has keen interest in research, academics and patient management. She has several publications in peer reviewed national and international journals. She is a reviewer of several international journals. The present study is based on several years of experience in serological and molecular techniques combined with the clinical expertise.

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) is defined as acute onset of fever and a change in mental status and/ or new onset of seizures (excluding simple febrile seizures) in a person of any age at any time of the year. Several etiologies, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites and toxins have been described as the causative agents of AES. This session will discuss the various etiologic agents of AES with special emphasis on viruses prevalent in South East Asian countries.

 

Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: We extensively reviewed the published literature on incidence and etiology of AES in outbreak and non- outbreak settings in different Asian countries and explored newer viruses or genotypic changes in viruses already known to cause AES in these countries.

 

Findings: The most common cause of AES in South East Asian countries is still Japanese Encephalitis Virus, despite the availability of an effective vaccine. This may be due to the recently reported genotype shift phenomenon. Besides JEV, other viruses that have been incriminated to cause AES in this region include Dengue, Chikungunya, West Nile Virus, Enteroviruses, Herpesviruses, Paramyxoviruses (Measles virus, Nipah virus), Human Parvovirus B19 and Parvovirus 4, Parechovirus, Adenovirus, Rabies virus, Kyasanur Forest Disease virus and Chandipura virus. The dominance of viruses varies with the geographical region and season. Encephalitis affects people of all ages, though pediatric age group is most commonly affected. A slight male predominance has been observed.

 

Conclusion & Significance: Since a wide range of viruses can cause AES, surveillance is essential for identifing the geographically predominant etiological agents for better management of patients as well as for formulating targeted prevention strategies.

Speaker
Biography:

Shantanu Prakash is PhD in field of virology and infectious diseases. He is basically involved with research, academics and in academics, research and patient management. He has more than 25 publications, four patents and thousands of sequences submitted on NCBI of different viruses and bacteria and has been involved in many intramural and extramural projects. He has experience in the field of designing molecular diagnostics assay for infectious diseases, molecular characterization & whole genome sequencing of different viruses. Right now he is involved extensively on epidemiology & surveillance of AES in northern India with focus of newer emerging and reemerging pathogens. The present study is based on several years of experience in serological and molecular techniques.

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Acute encephalitis syndrome is a group of neurologic manifestations caused by a plethora of organisms including viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites and toxins. There is a large amount of cross reactivity between the different etiological agents. Also, besides Japanese Encephalitis Virus, no guidelines exist for establishing the diagnosis of specific etiologic agents. This session deals with the methods available, practical problems, their advantages and disadvantages for laboratory testing of agents of AES.

 

Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: An extensive literature search was done to summarize a comprehensive approach for the laboratory investigations in the diagnosis of AES.

 

Findings: Laboratory diagnosis is generally established by testing the serum or CSF sample to detect virus specific IgM antibodies. IgM antibodies are usually detectable 3 to 8 days after onset of illness and persist usually for 30 to 90 days. Therefore, positive IgM antibodies may reflect a past infection or vaccination. Sample collected within 10 days of illness onset may not have detectable antibodies and so Real Time PCR and antibody testing on a convalescent sample becomes important. For patients with IgM antibodies, confirmatory neutralizing antibody testing should be performed. In fatal cases, nucleic acid amplification, histopathology with immunohistochemistry, virus culture of autopsy tissues can also be useful.

 

Conclusion & Significance: The choice of test depends upon the prevalent etiological agent in a geographical region, patient’s post-illness day of presentation to the health care centre, sample available and diagnostic facilities available. A laboratory network should be established for better patient management and optimum utilization of resources.

 

Amita Jain

King George’s Medical University, India

Title: Neurologic complications of dengue virus infection
Speaker
Biography:

Amita Jain has her expertise in virology and infectious diseases. She has a keen interest in academics, research and patient management. She has more than 250 publications in peer reviewed national and international journals and has supervised 32 projects as the principal investigator and 14 projects as a co- supervisor. She is a member of many scientific committees and has chaired and co-chaired at several national and international conferences. The present study is based on several years of experience in serological and molecular techniques combined with the clinical expertise.

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Dengue virus infection is an extremely common mosquito borne infection in the world. Neurologic complications are increasingly being reported in dengue cases affecting both the central and peripheral nervous system. This session is aimed to discuss the incidence and clinical spectrum of neurologic complications of dengue, methods of their diagnosis, management and outcome in patients with dengue virus infection.

Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: An extensive review of the published literature was carried out using Pubmed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases. The keywords used were “Dengue and neurological”, “Dengue and neuropathy”, ”Dengue and Plexopathy”, “Dengue and Acute Encephalitis Syndrome”, “Dengue and Encephalopathy”.

Findings: The neurologic manifestations may be seen in 0.5- 7.4% of dengue cases. These include encephalopathy, encephalitis, aseptic meningitis, stroke (intracranial hemorrhages or thrombosis), myelitis, Guillain Barre syndrome, plexus involvement (brachial plexopathy, neuralgic amyotrophy, lumbosacral plexoopathy), nerve involvement (mononeuropathies, polyneuropathies) and muscle involvement (myalgias, myositis, rhabdomyolysis, hypokalemic paralysis). Diagnosis of dengue virus infection may be made by a combination of dengue NS1Ag/Real Time PCR and anti-IgM antibody in CSF. In serum samples, dengue infection may be confirmed by PCR/culture positivity, IgM detection or by four fold rise in titers of specific IgG antibodies in paired serum samples.

Conclusion & Significance: In endemic regions dengue should be considered as a differential diagnosis of neurological disorders. Early recognition of these complications is required for proper management of cases and for preventing further disabilities.

  • Sexually Transmitted Viral Infections
Speaker
Biography:

Dr Ganesh .S.A  has been working in the field of HIV/AIDS since 2006 in India .Has worked as Tamilnadu State AIDS Control (TANSACS) STI medical officer , ART medical officer and HIV Community care centre medical officer . After undergraduation , completed his fellowship in HIV Medicine from Government Hospital of Thoracic Medicine (GHTM), Tambaram ,  which is a centre of excellence for HIV treatment , care and support in India. Has been selected as best outgoing fellow and worked as chief fellow in International Training and Education Centre for Health , India. Subsequently completed his MD in Community Medicine from Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital (SBMCH) , Bharath University,  Chennai. He was the first person as principal investigator  to study about discordant response to ART in patients  enrolled in a Government programme in India. Has done International Presentations of his research work in Africa , UK , India , France , and in USA with many publications .Has been nominated by GHTM and SBMCH for the SAARC Prize on HIV/AIDS 2016  pertaining to his contributions in HIV research . His area of research interest are discordant response to ART , virology , Quality of life , clinical immunology and public health . Currently  involved in HIV research , undergraduate & postgraduate teaching , incharge of free medical camp activities , guiding PhD candidates , conducting conferences , CME , and Public health awareness programmes  in SBMCH as an assistant professor in community medicine department .  

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem : Since the beginning of the epidemic more than 70 million people have been infected with HIV/AIDS .Nearly 35 million people have died of HIV/AIDS. The global adult prevalence of HIV is 0.8%(0.7-0.9). Sub Saharan Africa remains most severely affected , with one in every 25 adults (4.4% ) living with HIV .The adult prevalence of HIV in India is 0.3% .

Discussion : Globally and in India the AIDS Control Programmes have identified many preventive strategies and have also successfully implemented it in the past . The current challenges are preventing HIV in  sero discordant couples , intravenous venous drug abusers , adolescent vulnerable populations and migrant truck drivers. Currently, pre exposure prophylaxis  is available in the USA , South Africa, Kenya , Canada , France , Israel and in Peru. The current concept of combination prevention includes biomedical interventions , behavioural interventions and structural interventions . Some of the prevention projects in India are project pechan , avahan , sonaguchi , kavach , link workers scheme and red ribbon express. Additional evidence based research is needed in India and globally to even more upgrade the  HIV prevention strategies in areas like pre exposure prophylaxis , cash transfer programmes to vulnerable adolescent young girls and  voluntary male circumcision .

Mohammad Amin Khajavi

Mashhad University of Medical Science, Iran

Title: High prevalence of HPV in odontogenic cysts
Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Amin Khajavi completed his DMD degree from the faculty of dentistry at Mashhad university of medical science. After working a short time, He entered the postgraduate periodontics program at Mashhad dental school. He has published several papers in dental journals and presented at various confrences. 

Abstract:

Introduction:

Human papilloma virus is one of the DNA viruses which seems to be a causative factor in benign and malignant epithelial proliferation by synthesis of special oncoproteins so that they are considered as etiologic or cofactors in odontogenic cysts. Up to now, limited studies evaluated the presence of this virus in odontogenic cysts and tumors and also their conflicting results made it hard to conclude. Further studies are needed to make a rational hypothesis related to the role of these viruses in the development of odontogenic lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of  HPV in odontogenic cysts.

Material and method

85 cases of odontogenic cysts from archive of oral and maxillofacial pathology department of Mashhad dental school were collected. All cases were deparafinized and subsequently hydrated after that DNA was extracted from spicemens. By PCR technique the presence of HPV was evaluated. 

Results

 85 odontogenic cysts evaluated in our study including 20 periapical cysts, 20 dentigerous cyst(DC), 25 Calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC)  and 20 Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC). Regarding to our results prevalence of HPV in periapical cyst were  15% , in OKC 25 % , in DC 15% , in COC 24% ( Ia 18.18% , Ib 25% , Ic 16.6 % , II 50% ). Statistical analysis showed that there is a statistically significant difference regarding to prevalence of HPV only between COC Ia, Ib, Ic types.

Conclusion 

According to high prevalence of HPV in odontogenic cysts, we concluded that these viruses may have a role in etiology and pathogenesis of these lesions. 

  • Viral Haemorraghic Fever
Speaker
Biography:

Dr.Kalyan Koganti, is an infectious diseases specialist from South India, has done his MD(Internal Medicine) from Manipal and PG certificate(Infectious Diseases) from London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. He has established a centre for infectious diseases and has submitted significant scientific data on endemic infections, HIV and hospital/community acquired infections.

Abstract:

Background :  In India platelet transfusions are given to large no. of patients suffering with dengue due to the fear of bleeding especially when the platelet counts are low. Though many patients do not bleed when the platelet count falls to less than 20,000, certain patients bleed even if the platelet counts are more than 20,000  without any comorbid condition (like gastro intestinal ulcer) in the past. This fear has led to huge amounts of unnecessary platelet transfusions which cause significant economic burden to low and middle  income countries like India and also sometimes these transfusions end with transfusion related adverse reactions.

Materials and Methods: To identify the role of APTT in comparison with thrombocytopenia as an indicator to assess the real need of platelet transfusions. A prospective  study was conducted at a hospital in South India which included 176 admitted cases of dengue confirmed by immunochromatography. APTT was performed in all these patients along with platelet count. Cut off values of >60 seconds for APTT and <20,000 for platelet count were considered to assess the bleeding manifestations in dengue.

Results : Among the total 176 patients, 56 patients had bleeding manifestations like malena,  hematuria,  bleeding gums etc.  APTT >60 seconds had a sensitivity and specificity of 93% and 90% respectively in identifying bleeding manifestations where as platelet count of <20,000 had a sensitivity and specificity of 64% and 73% respectively.

Conclusion : Elevated APTT levels can be considered as an indicator to assess the need of platelet transfusion in dengue. As there is a significant variation among patients who  bleed with respect to platelet count, APTT can be considered to avoid unnecessary transfusions.

 

  • Mycology and its diversity
Biography:

Abstract:

Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the most popular food crops in Nigeria. Its successful production has been drastically affected by blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae. In vitro control of the pathogen by four medicinal plants (Carica papaya, Azadirachta indica,Calotropis procera and Anacardium occidentale) was assessed in this study. The extracts of the plants were prepared using aqueous and methanol, and agar well diffusion method was used to assess the toxicity of each extract. The pathogen was isolated from rice infected with blast disease. The results revealed the presence of one or more phytochemicals in each of the plant extracts. Among these were alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponin, anthocyanin and phenol. All the extracts inhibited mycelia growth of M. oryzae. The potency of all the extracts increased with increasing concentration in the order; 50mg/ml<100mg/ml/150mg/ml. The inhibitions by methanol extracts were higher and significantly different (P>0.05) from aqueous extracts. At the highest concentration tested (150mg/ml), A. occidentale and C. procera gave the highest inhibitions (99.0mm and 98.6mm respectively) which were not significantly  different (P<0.05) but different from C. papaya and A. indica (89.1mm and 90.4mm respectively). However, in all, A. occidentale aqueous and methanol extracts gave the highest percentage growth inhibition of the pathogen at all levels of concentrations tested while C. papaya aqueous and methanol extracts though effective were the least. Therefore, field trials of these four medicinal plants on the control of rice blast disease are recommended since they are easy to obtain and the extracts could easily be made via a simple process of maceration or infusion, they could be cheaper substitute for conventional drugs in controlling rice blast disease.

  • Viral Respiratory Infections
Speaker
Biography:

Ammar Afif is a trained molecular scientist currently working at the Infectious diseases unit at Pantai Premier Pathology laboratory. During his research years, he has delved into the usage of plant-derived products as an adjunctive treatment for diabetic foot. His interest has also embarked upon observing the pattern of viral infections in Malaysia and how does race influences the pattern of viral infections. 

Abstract:

Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are one of the most common infectious diseases, especially in developing countries. Thus, early detection of the causative pathogen is critical in disease management, altogether reducing the socio-economic impact of complications arising from ARI.  NxTAG Respiratory Panel is a high-throughput, multiplex nucleic acid amplification test (NAT) that able to detect 19 different viruses and 3 bacteria from a single respiratory specimen. NxTAG is approved by FDA, CE and Health Canada regulatory bodies as an aid in detecting and identifying respiratory pathogens in the clinical setting. This study aims to deliver an overview of the epidemiology of respiratory infections in Peninsular Malaysia in different age groups of general population using the NxTAG respiratory panel.