Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 5th World Congress on Virology Atlanta, USA.

Day 1 :

Keynote Forum

Ting-Chao Chou

Founder and President, PD Science, LLC USA

Keynote: Stories Behind The Cocktail and Synergism

Time : 09:00-09:45

Conference Series Virology-2015 International Conference Keynote Speaker Ting-Chao Chou photo
Biography:

Ting-Chao Chou (born in Taiwan), received M.S in pharmacology, National Taiwan University, Ph.D. in Pharmacology from Yale University in 1970, and postdoctoral fellowship from Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Member of Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) and Professor of Pharmacology at Cornell University Graduate School of Medical Sciences. He is Honorary Professor at Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (1993-) and Visiting Professor at five universities. He was Director of Preclinical Pharmacology Core at MSKCC where he retired on June 1st, 2013. Dr. Chou published >300 articles, have been cited 22,589 times in 850 different bio-medical journals, with h-index: 65, based on Google Scholar Citations. He is inventor/co-inventor of 38 U.S. Patents. Dr. Chou is the Founder of PD Science, LLC., USA.

Abstract:

The therapy of AIDS and cancer rarely used single drugs, but rather have used two or more drug combinations. Drug combination may provide benefits of synergistic therapeutic effect, as well as reduced toxicity, minimized or delayed development of drug resistance, or allowed attacking multiple receptor or etiological targets. The important basic requirments for these aims are: i) Definition of synergism and its quantitative determination using the combination Index (CI<1); ii) Simple and efficient experiment design using small number of data points and small number patients in phase-I clinical trial design using the mass-action law based "minimum of two-data point theory" for dose and effect dynamics ; iii) The theoretical basis for the Combination Index for 3 or more drugs combinations using the "Polygonogram". The original CI equation, theory, algorithm, and computerized simulation of synergism and antagonisn were presented in Chou TC & Talalay. Adv. Enz. Regul 22:27-55, 1984, cited 4,357 times in 850 different journals); in Chou TC. Pharmacol Rev 58:621-681, 2006 (cited 1,298 times in 342 journals); and in Chou TC. Integrative Biol. 3:548-559, 2011 (featured on the front-cover of the May issue, published by RSC Cambridge, UK). Questions to be asked are: How to assess combo synergy quantitatively for 2 or more drugs?; Are the Combos on the market the best in synergy?; Do peer reviewers, journal editors and governmental regulatory agencies really understand "What is synergy?. These issues will be discussed and the answers will be provided.

Keynote Forum

Dharam Ablashi

HHV-6 Foundation,KHG fiteBac® Technology,USA

Keynote: Emerging Human Pathogens: Human Herpes Virus-6 (HHV-6) & Human Herpesvirus-7 (HHV-7)

Time : 09:45-10:30

Conference Series Virology-2015 International Conference Keynote Speaker Dharam Ablashi photo
Biography:

Dharam V. Ablashi is a microbiologist. He has published over 300 articles on herpesviruses and HIV. His major interests are assessing pathogenic roles of viruses in diseases, and in developing antivirals as therapeutic reagents. He has a BSc, and a D.M.V from Panjab University India, a Dip. Bact from I.V.R.I, and MS in Virology from the University of R.I., USA. He worked 23 years at NIH. In 1986, he co-discovered human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6), a highly neurotropic and immune suppressive virus. He was as an adjunct professor at Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, and Director of Herpesvirus Research in a diagnostic company. Currently, the Scientific Director of the HHV-6 Foundation, and the Senior Technology Adviser at KHG fiteBac Technology in Marietta, Georgia.

Abstract:

HHV-6 and HHV-7 were discovered in 1986, and 1990 respectively. They are acquired in early childhood, and after primary infection become latent. Their prevalence in the various populations throughout the world is VARIABLE (> 44->95%). Once they reactivate, they play an important role in pathogenesis of various diseases. HHV-6 is associated with neurological and non-neurological diseases. HHV-6 is re-classified as HHV-6A, and HHV-6B. HHV-6A is associated with multiple sclerosis, mood disorders (Bi-polar disease), myocarditis, and cardiac myopathy, and gliomas. Similarly, HHV-6B infection has been found in heart disease (myocarditis, arteriosclerosis, heart failure), idiopathic pneumonia, MTLE, status epilepticus, lymphadenopathy, Hodgkin’s disease, (nodular sclerosis). HHV-7 pathogenesis is not well documented. Like HHV-6B, it is the causative agent of exantem subitum, febrile convulsions, and found in 7% cases of status epilepticus, meningomyelitis, and hemorrhagic brainstem encephalitis. The reactivation of these viruses does lead to preferentially bone morrow transplant rejection. They are also found in a variety of autoimmune disorders (scleroderma). The most fascinating era of HHV-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-7 research show that amongst the 9 HHVs, they are the only viruses that integrate at the telomeres of the human chromosome during latency (cihhv-6). Based on various studies, it is estimated that between 40 and 80 million people worldwide carry inherited HHV-6, acquired through germline. Such individuals are at risk to various infections e.g. angina pectoris, x-linked severe combined immune deficiency, CNS dysfunction. Their replication is treatable with antivirals. We will review the current basic and clinical findings.

Conference Series Virology-2015 International Conference Keynote Speaker Shahana Choudhury photo
Biography:

I have a background in Pediatrics and Pediatric Infectious Diseases, including Board Certification and recertification, as well as expertise in evaluating immunities to vaccine preventable infections in HIV-infected and HIV-exposed children. My research in this area was initiated as a fellow at Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, where I evaluated the immunogenicity to the hepatitis B vaccine in HIV-infected children. Subsequently, I was able to successfully develop and conduct an RC1 research project evaluating serotype specific antibodies to S pneumoniae in US-born versus Hispanic pregnant women and cord blood samples of their infants. This resulted in a publication in the May-June 2012 issue of JNMA.

Abstract:

Immunity to varicella and measles have not been compared in HIV seropositive and rnseronegative pregnant women and their infants. Antibody levels to varicella and measles were rnevaluated in 14 HIV seropositive and 34 seronegative pregnant women, 14 HIV exposed and 26 rnun-exposed cord bloods, and followed-up prospectively in 23 HIV exposed and unexposed infants rnaround 3- 7 months of age by ELISA (99 samples) and by EIA (13 samples) for measles and byrnimmunofluorescence (IFA) for varicella. Correlates of immunity were defined as antibody levels rnmeasles (> 1.09 OD ratio or EIA) and >1:8 IFA for varicella. Antibody levels were correlated with rnT cell counts in HIV seropositive mothers. Mean (range) ages of women at time of serologic rntests were 27 (18-40), and 25 (15-41) years for HIV and control groups, respectively. Antibody rnlevels to measles were significantly (P= 0.04) lower in cord bloods of HIV exposed infants rncompared to the controls. T cell counts were lower in HIV seropositive women non-immune rn(268/mm3) to measles compared to those immune (618/mm3), but insignificantly (P= 0.07).rnImmunity to measles and varicella as recognized by antibody levels declined significantly in rnboth HIV exposed and unexposed infants by 3- 7 months of age.rn

  • General Virology and Basic Science
Speaker

Chair

Sita Awasthi

University of Pennsylvania,USA

Speaker

Co-Chair

Hua Zhu

Rutgers University,USA

Speaker
Biography:

Michael W. Washabaugh is acting as a Senior Director at MedImmune.His expertise include Experience includes: product immunogenicity, vaccine & therapeutic protein bioprocess, analytical & formulation development (esp. understanding regulatory expectations for filing for approval & process/facility changes), technology transfer to manufacturing, development & execution of automated in-process monitoring assays to support bioprocess & formulation development, structure-function relationships, surrogate markers & bioanalytical development, characterization of antigen-adjuvant interactions, GLP/GMP assays & clinical assays.

Abstract:

Viral diseases offer a major challenge to vaccine development because of the complex nature of virus structures and the large size of the virus particle needed to generate an effective immune response. Classical approaches to develop antiviral vaccines have required the use of attenuated (or inactivated) live viruses produced in cell culture. Although this approach has been widely successful and is still in practice, not all viruses are amenable to replication in cell culture, particularly at commercial scale. In appropriate expression systems, recombinant viral proteins of modest size (24 kDa) have been produced that self-assemble into icosahedral virus-like particles (VLPs) whose surface is immunochemically comparable to that of the actual virus – this has been a major success story in contemporary vaccines. This talk reviews the scientific challenges in the production and characterization of VLP vaccines, and the data necessary to provide assurance of comparability for manufacturing changes.

Speaker
Biography:

Farshad Guirakhoo, a virologist by training, was named one of the 50 Most Influential People in Vaccines in Vaccine Nation’s 2014 list. His most recent assignment was CTO at Vaxess Technologies. Prior to this, he served as CSO at Hookipa Biotech and Executive Director of External R&D at Sanofi Pasteur. Before joining Sanofi Pasteur in 2007, he was with Acambis for 15 years as Head of Research and co-invented the ChimeriVax-technology platform in association with St. Louis University. This platform has successfully been applied in the development of vaccines such as IMOJEV™, PreVenile™, Dengvaxia™, and WN human vaccine. He has broad experience in the application of gene expression technologies and molecular virology for the construction and production of recombinant proteins, human antibodies, and attenuated viral vectored vaccines for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. He is the author of over 80 peer-reviewed publications and holder of multiple patents.

Abstract:

Viral infections account for 15 million deaths per year, one-third of all mortalities worldwide. The most effective medical approach to combat viral diseases and reduce deaths is vaccinations, which have less adverse side effects than drugs while inducing longer lasting protection from reinfection. Live attenuated, inactivated, or subunit vaccine approaches have been successfully utilized to combat mortalities caused by infectious diseases such as yellow fever, varicella, measles, mumps, rubella, influenza, smallpox, polio, rabies, hepatitis A and B, and human papillomavirus. Viruses themselves have also been used as vectors (either replication competent or replication deficient) for development of vaccines against both infectious and non-infectious diseases. The most important factor in the construction of effective viral vectors is finding the right balance between safety and immunogenicity. Although live viral vaccine vectors are highly efficacious, there is also a greater potential risk involved with their broader usage because they are replication-competent. Vaccines based on replication-incompetent viruses are perceived to be safer but there is not yet any vaccine on the market for human use. In this talk, characteristics of both replication-deficient and replication-competent viral vectors and barriers for their developments will be discussed. The talk will specifically focus on a few vector examples that have either generated marketed products or have successfully completed their phase 3 efficacy trials.

Nada M Melhem

American University of Beirut, Lebanon

Title: Characterization of Norovirus in Lebanon among hospitalized children less than 5 years old

Time : 11:55 - 12:15

Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Nada Melhem joined the American University of Beirut (AUB) in 2009 after earning her doctoral and postdoctoral training at the University of Pittsburgh, Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology. She is an assistant professor of infectious diseases and microbiology at the Faculty of Health Sciences (FHS), an associate at the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics and a member of the Center for Infectious Diseases Research, Faculty of Medicine at AUB. Dr. Melhem is a virologist and immunologist representing FHS on the National Committee for Communicable Diseases and the Polio National Containment Committee, both hosted at the Ministry of Public Health. Dr. Melhem conducts international and national collaborative research on potential therapeutic vaccine models targeting HIV- 1 and HIV drug resistance in Lebanon, respectively. She has designed and implemented projects on viral hepatitis as well as HIV and viral hepatitis co-infections among high-risk groups. Dr. Melhem has published on HIV and viral hepatitis and is currently assessing the prevalence of Norovirus among hospitalized children less than 5 in Lebanon and the genotypic characterization of the virus.

Abstract:

Norovirus (NoV) is responsible for at least 50% of all gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. NoVs are classified into six different genogroups (GGI- GGVI) based on the viral capsid protein with NoV genogroup II genotype 4 (GGII.4) being the predominant strain causing human diseases. To our knowledge, no data exist on the burden of NoV in Lebanon among hospitalized children less than 5 years old. Written informed consents were obtained from the legal guardians of hospitalized children and consequently stool samples and medical data were collected. A standardized questionnaire including demographic, epidemiologic and clinical observations was used at the time of hospitalization of children presenting with diarrhea. A total of 739 eligible stool samples were collected from six major hospitals in Lebanon. Viral RNA extraction was performed followed by reverse transcription using genogroup-specific primers for GI and GII genotypes Nucleotide sequencing of NoV positive samples was performedusing the PCR primers. Multiple sequence alignments were carried out and phylogenetic trees were constructed using the MEGA 6 software. A total of 83 norovirus cases (11.2%) were detected over the course of 2 years. The mean age of these cases was 16.2±9.5 months. The incidence of NoV infection was the highest during the summer season (June-August) of each year. The majority of the NoV cases were NoV genogroup GII (n=78) with a total incidence rate of 10.6% while 5 samples tested positive for NoV genogroup GI with a total incidence rate of 0.7%. Most samples showed positive symptoms of diarrhea (95.1%) followed bydehydration (89.0%), vomiting (76.8%) and fever (67.1%). The majority of the isolated cases were caused by GII.4a and GII.4b (67%) with isolated cases of GII.1, GII.3, GII.6, GII.7, GII.9, GII.13 and GII.21. Similarly, GI.3 and GI.4 were detected. Our results are similar to those detected in the developed countries. We are in the process of designing seroprevalence data to assess the level of protection following infection with NoV.

Rashmi Sharma

SPC GCA ,MDSU,Ajmer,India

Title: Viral Diseases of Ajmer Rajasthan India

Time : 12:15 - 12:35

Speaker
Biography:

She did her PhD on the Topic "Effects of certain substances antagonizing the action of vitamin A during limb and tail regeneration in anuran amphibians. She has 20 years of teaching experience and 20 years of research experience. She has attended more than 57 conferences both national and international. Did 2 refresher courses and 1 orientation course. She has published papers in national and international journals. Supervised 7 Dissertations and presently supervising 4 PhD studentshttp://virology.omicsgroup.com/

Abstract:

Ajmer is located in the center of Rajasthan (India) between 250 38 and 260 58 North Latitude and 730 54 and 750 22 East Longitude covering a geographical area of about 8481sqkm hemmed in all sides by Aravalli hills. Viral diseases occur when an organism’s body is invaded by pathogenic viruses and infectious viral particles (virions) enter susceptible cells. The viral diseases which commonly occur in Ajmer are: 1) Influenza (family Orthomyxoviridae), occur by droplet contact. Treatment is by Amantadine, rimantadine, zanamivir, oseltamivir. Prevention is by hand washing, covering the mouth while coughing and sneezing and avoiding close contact. 2) AIDS (Retriviridae) transmission is by sexual contact, blood, breast milk. Treatment is by HAART and prevention by avoiding shared needles, safe sex. Diagnosis is by antibody detection, p24 and nucleic acids. 3) Measles (Paramyxo viridae) transmission by droplet contact, treatment none, prevention by vaccines and avoiding contact, diagnosis is by antibody detection. 4) Mumps (Family Paramyxo viridae) transmission is by droplet contact and treatment none; prevention is vaccine and avoiding close contact. 5) Chicken pox (family Herpes viridae), transmission is by direct contact, treatment by zoster and varicella (acyclovir) and diagnosis by cell culture. 6) Gastroenteritis (Adeni viridae) transmission by droplet contact, fecal and oral; treatment none, prevention is by vaccine diagnosis ELISA. 7) Pneumonia (Paramyxo viridae) Transmission by droplet contact, treatment none, prevention by vaccine, diagnosis is by antibody detection.

Speaker
Biography:

Chengyu Liang obtained her PhD from the University of New York at Stony Brook, and received post-doctoral training as a tumor virologist at Harvard Medical School. She is an Assistant Professor at the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, where she leads a research team that investigate the molecular regulation and biological functions of basic cellular processes, including autophagy, apoptosis, genomic instability, and membrane trafficking, in the pathogenesis and therapeutic interventions of cancer and infectious diseases

Abstract:

Autophagy constitutes a major catabolic hub for the quality control of intracellular entities of eukaryotic cells, and is emerging as an essential part of the host antiviral defense mechanism. However, in turn, viruses have evolved elegant strategies to co-opt various stages of the cellular autophagy pathway to establish virulence in vivo. This is particularly the case in the ubiquitous and persistent herpesvirus infection. I will discuss recent findings regarding the crosstalk between the gamma-herpes virus family and the autophagy pathway. We have identified the key role of the anti-autophagic aspect of the virally encoded Bcl-2s in the chronic infection of oncogenic -herpesviruses and propose that cellular autophagy may have a substantial effect on viral persistence and may influence the in vivo fitness of viruses. Furthermore, some autophagy factors can also be hitchhiked by viruses for their efficient penetration into host cells. These discoveries expand upon known antiviral activities of the autophagy machinery and also suggest new approaches for treating some virally induced diseases.

Marcela Kudelova

Institute of Virology Slovak Academy of Sciences

Title: Murine gammaherpesvirus – newly discovered properties of MHV-68
Speaker
Biography:

Marcela Kudelova has completed her postdoctoral studies from Comenius University and ScD thesis from Slovak Academy of Sciences. She is the head of Department of Molecular Pathogenesis of Virology, Institute of Virology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Slovak Republic. She has published more than 55 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of repute.

Abstract:

The murine γ-herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) known naturally infect rodents still actually provides a unique experimental model for dissecting important topics of human immunity to large DNA viruses that persist in B lymphocytes. Three scopes of interest related to MHV-68 are addressed by our laboratory and produce new knowledge about this virus. The first addresses the hypothesis that ticks, known to transmit multiple pathogens which can cause diseases in humans and animals, have a role in MHV-68 circulation in nature. The second is whether it is possible that MHV-68 might transform mouse cells in vitro. And the third addresses to the hypothesis that MHV-68 might induce the production of growth factor related compounds described for some herpesviruses. Recently we were the first to report the detection of MHV-68 in Dermacentor reticulatus ticks and of a live virus in their organs. Along with previous finding of MHV-68 in Ixodes ricinus ticks these results allow suggest MHV-68 as a potential arbovirus, the second one known as its own DNA genome. More, we prepared MHV-68 transformed mouse fibroblast cell line that acquired transformed phenotype after infection with UV irradiated MHV-68. In transformed cell line, viral antigen and DNA could be detected indicating that it might be oncogenic. In medium of these cells we identified compounds resembling growth factors which have displayed transforming and transformed phenotype suppressing activity in normal and tumor cells. Bivalent properties of compounds have been blocked entirely by antisera against MHV-68 and monoclonal antibodies against glycoprotein B suggesting their viral origin.

Speaker
Biography:

Daniel Delani is graduated in Biological Sciences from the Faculty of Education of Porto Velho and has postgraduate in Methodology for Higher Education and Curricular Innovations and in Environmental Management. He is currently Assistant Professor I of the Federal University of Rondonia.

Abstract:

The city of Porto Velho, into the Amazon, is located into an endemic area and it has a perfect condition to proliferate the Dengue`s disease. Hence, the objective of this study is to gather an epidemiologic data of the case reports into the city of Porto Velho, since 2007 to nowadays, showing on these results of the hydroelectric constructions into the Madeira River, has increased the epidemiologic manifestation of the disease, In addition we used the information from SINAN. In summary, the city of Porto Velho registered in the year of 2007, 387 cases of Dengue , 2008 = 1092, 2009 = 1757, 2010 = 6410, 2011 = 162, 2012 = 163, up to date 153 cases of an of the 4 serotype of Dengue, has been registered. Moreover, according to the Brazilian Ministry of Health, the city of Porto Velho leave the alert epidemiologic situation to outbreak epidemiologic situation pointed by LIRAa, since 2010; with index of lend register of 4,4%. These information, associated with incidence of diseases in the year 2010, show the demographic impact caused by increment of workers arrived from different cities among the whole country, for the constructions of Hydroelectric into the Madeira River. Therefore, besides the indexes have shown toward a epidemiologic control, the 4 serotypes of the disease and the continuous migration of workers, may have contributed to new epidemics, increasing the vulnerability of the area toward the disease, being necessary the constant prevention and measurements to stabilize these aggravations.

  • Clinical and Neuro Virology

Session Introduction

Hua Zhu

Rutgers University ,USA

Title: Role of ORF 7 in Varicella Zoster Virus Tissue Tropism and Potential for Novel Vaccine

Time : 12:35 - 12:55

Speaker
Biography:

Hua Zhu is an Associate Professor of Department of Microbiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University. He has received a Ph.D. from the Columbia University, New York NY in 1993. He has completed his postdoctoral training in herpesviruses in Princeton University, NJ in 1998. He is serving as an editorial board member of the Journal of antivirals and antiretrovirals and and reviewer of 6 journals. He published over 60 research articles, reviews and book chapters.

Abstract:

After the primary infection, varicella zoster virus (VZV) remains latent in sensory ganglia, and reactivates upon weakening of the immune system, erupting from sensory neurons and infecting surrounding skin tissue. The factors involved in neuronal invasion and establishment of latency are still elusive. In our previous work, we employed a VZV BAC system in order to characterize a comprehensive library of VZV single ORF deletion mutants. We reported 18 ORFs to be fully dispensable in melanoma cells, which we postulated to encode elements responsible for specific tissue tropism. We now demonstrate that screening of these 18 dispensable gene mutants in differentiated neurons led to the identification of ORF7 as a neurotropic factor. This finding adds to our previous report that ORF7 is also a skin tropic factor. ORF7 is a virion component localized to the Golgi compartment in infected cells, whose deletion causes loss of polykaryon formation in vitro and severely impairs viral spread in human nervous tissue ex vivo. Interactions between ORF7 and other virion proteins are under investigation. Furthermore, ORF7 is required for VZV replication in xenografts of human skin and dorsal root ganglia in a SCID-hu mouse model. Here we show that an ORF7 deletion virus is able to infect dendritic cells, which in turn can infect T cells. This unique set of characteristics lends an ORF7 deletion mutant the potential to become an excellent VZV vaccine candidate. This neuroattenuated vaccine would cause neither the primary chickenpox nor the secondary herpes zoster diseases. Finally, given that ORF7 is essential for VZV initial infection of neurons and replication therein, it may also be a critical trigger of reactivation from latency.

Robin J Green

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Pretoria, South Africa

Title: New Insights into the Bugs in the Airway of HIV-infected Children with Lung Disease

Time : 12:55 - 13:15

Speaker
Biography:

Robin J Green is Director of Paediatric Services and Paediatric Pulmonology, Paediatric Intensive Care and Allergy Services at the Steve Biko Academic Hospital, Pretoria. He is a Full Professor in the Department of Paediatrics and Child Health within the School of Medicine at the University of Pretoria. He holds a PhD and DSc, and is a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians and Past President of the College of Paediatricians of South Africa. He is also Immediate Past Chairman of the Allergy Society of South Africa. The National Research Foundation rates him as an established researcher, in paediatric pulmonology.

Abstract:

Pulmonary diseases and syndromes occur in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and they often differ from children not co-infected by the HI virus.Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) is a common opportunistic LRTI in HIV-infected infants, early in life and presents as acute severe pneumonia. The presence of PCP is known to be commonly associated with Cytomegalovirus co-infection and CMV is often responsible for mortality. Bacterial and viral co-infection occurs but does not impact outcome. The cytokine results suggest that the major cytokine associated with severe hypoxic pneumonia in very young, HIV-infected, infants is IP-10. There is now clear evidence that bronchiolitis is not a common condition in HIV-infected infants. New evidence is emerging that Human Rhinovirus is associated with both bronchiolitis and pneumonia in both HIV-infected and –non-infected children. With regard to the sputum cytokines identified in children with an acute lower respiratory tract infection, IL-13, IL-4, IL-5, TNF-α, IFN-α, IFN-γ, and MIP-1α are significantly lower in HIV-infected cases, whilst IP-10 and MIG are significantly higher in HIV-infected cases.Chronic lung disease, especially bronchiectasis, is often a sequelae in HIV-infected children. H. influenzae and -parainfluenzae are the predominant organisms cultured in children with HIV-related bronchiectasis and now shown to be the dominant microbiome in such individuals. Il-8 is the cytokine which dominates in children with HIV-associated bronchiectasis.

George Adigbli

University College London, UK

Title: tRNA retrograde transport in nuclear import of HIV-1

Time : 13:15 - 13:35

Speaker
Biography:

George Adigbli completed his Bachelor of Sciences degree in Medical Sciences, with Immunology and Cell Pathology, as well as his Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery degrees. He has since completed a Master of Sciences degree at University College London and has been granted a postgraduate scholarship from the University of Oxford to complete a DPhil in Immunology.

Abstract:

Lentiviruses and gammaretroviruses are two subdivisions of retroviruses that exhibit cell cycle independence and dependence respectively in their ability to infect cells. Nuclear import of HIV-1, a process that we lack explicit knowledge of, has been speculated to be mediated by several host and viral factors known as nuclear localisation signals. No such signal currently identified however has been determined essential for nuclear import. Recently it has been found that nuclear import of HIV-1 is mediated by retrograde transport of tRNA. We sought to identify whether there is a relationship between the cell cycle dependence of these retroviral subtypes, the tRNA they incorporate, and nuclear import of HIV-1. To investigate this we studied wild type HIV-1 and MLV and produced two chimeric viruses containing different MLV gag components within a HIV vector. Using these we identified the infectivity of the viruses, extracted and analysed their tRNA and attempted to assay their effect on nuclear import of reverse transcription complexes. We showed that the viruses encoding MLV CA were less able to infect dividing cells than those encoding HIV CA and were also unable to infect non-dividing cells. We also demonstrated quantitative differences between the tRNAs incorporated by the different viruses, most notably the chimera encoding MLV CA. This suggests that MLV CA may somehow affect interaction with or incorporation of tRNAs that mediate HIV-1 nuclear import. We were unable to assimilate the role of such differences in nuclear import however, we have evidence now to suggest that the capsid protein and its interaction with tRNA in some way could hold the key to nuclear import of HIV-1. This creates great prospects for future investigations into the nature of such a relationship and how it may possibly be manipulated in HIV-1 therapy.

Jayaraman Shanmugam

Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth University,India

Title: Arboviral infections in India and South East Asian countries

Time : 15:15 - 15:35

Speaker
Biography:

Dr.Jayaraman Shanmugam,M.Sc.,Ph.D.,M.D.,Ph.,D(Hon.), President of Indian Association of Medical Microbiologists (2014-2015) has worked at Sri Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, (Govt.of India), Trivandrum for 26 years and later in two private medical colleges for 14 years in UAE and India. He has completed 24 research projects, published 118 papers in various journals, received 18 awards and many honors, edited two journals, organized many workshops, symposia, CME, national and international conferences, guided Ph.D students and is an elected Fellow of five societies, including American College of Epidemiology and a senior consultant in Medical Virology/Microbiology in India.

Abstract:

More than 40 human viral agents have emerged in various parts of the world during the past four decades. Most of them are RNA viruses mainly transmitted from animals to humans. Maximum viruses have emerged in the African, Asian and South American continents where enormous species of animals, birds and insects are living with increased possibility of humans coming in close contact with them directly or indirectly. Though more than 550 types of arbo viruses have been described in the world, only around 15 types of them have been reported in India. The Kyasanur Forest Virus in India emerged in 1957 in Karnataka state. In 2005-2006 a major Chikungunya outbreak occurred in South India. The arbovirus emerged lately in India is Congo-Crimean Hemorrhagic Fever virus in 2012 in Gujarat. Around 10 new types of viruses have been detected in South East Asia and Western Pacific. In Australia nearly 40 arbo viruses have been described. Due to the paucity of laboratory facilities many viral diseases go undiagnosed in developing countries from Africa and Asia. Hence the health authorities should initiate appropriate measures to establish high quality laboratories to diagnose viral diseases without delay, including periodic training of the laboratory personnel.

  • Symposium

Session Introduction

Abdelouaheb Benani

Pasteur Institute of Morocco, Morocco

Title: Molecular Epidemiology of HBV and HCV in North Africa

Time : 14:15 - 14:45

Speaker
Biography:

Abdelouaheb Benani is the in-charge of Molecular Biology Laboratory at Pasteur Institute of Morocco which is a national reference laboratory for Hepatitis C Program (Moroccan ministry of health). He is also the elect-President of Arab Society for Virology and Active Member on the Advisory Board, Consultative Meeting on Regional Strategy for Prevention and Control of Viral Hepatitis and Other Epidemics-Prone Blood-Borne Diseases, in 2008 (WHO/EMRO, Cairo, Egypt). He got his Master of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology at Université Libre of Bruxelles (ULB, Belgium) and his PhD in Molecular Microbiology in Fes University (Morocco). He participates in several international and national workshops and congresses. He is also implicated in student’s research for their training, master, and PhD. He published in several journals including Journal of Medical Virology, BMC Public Health, and Virology Journal. He is an active researcher in Molecular Epidemiology of HBV and HCV in general population and high risk groups in Morocco. He organized the 1st International Symposium for Virology in Morocco in 2003 (Marrakech, Morocco) and the First PCR Forum and Molecular Typing at Pasteur Institute of Morocco.

Abstract:

Hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses are major public health problems worldwide and serious cause of liver disease that may silently progress toward cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The HCV epidemic in North Africa falls into an ‘intermediate’ range, characterized by a decreasing East-West gradient, with the average seroprevalence estimated between 1.2% and 1.9%. The HBV epidemic is more rampant, as most countries are either classified as highly or intermediately infected. Egypt harbors the highest HCV prevalence globally, with about 15% of the total population having been infected since the parenteral antischitosomal therapy implemented in the 1920s. HBV is less endemic in Egypt, with prevalences averaging around 4%. Libya borders Egypt yet has a lower endemicity for both HBV and HCV, estimated at 2.2% and 1.3% respectively. Tunisia is intermediate for HBV endemicity, with rates for HBsAg positive patients ranging between 4 to 7%, and an even lower HCV seroprevalence, estimated at 0.4% in the general population. The paucity of data for Algeria results in that the only figure for a national prevalence dates from 2009, and it is estimated that 2.5% of the population are HCV-positive. Morocco also falls into the intermediate range of seropositivity, currently standing at 1.58% anti-HCV antibodies and HBsAg at 1.81% for the general population. In terms of genotyping distribution, the predominant HCV genotypes circulating in the general North African population are 1b and 2a/2c for all North African countries, except for Libya and Egypt, which are distinct and both exhibit genotype 4 as the most commonly circulating strain. In Moroccan intravenous drug users, the predominant HCV genotypes were 1a, 3a and 4, which can therefore be caught by sharing needles with an infected person for IDUs, This is the first national study on the genotype profile of Moroccan IDUs living in the northern region of Morocco, and highlights the fact that they are a distinct cohort and display different demographic, serologic, and genotypic profiles. HBV genotype D is predominant in Morocco, as this is the major genotype in Mediterranean countries. High circulation of precore and basal core promoter mutants is common in chronic hepatitis B infection among the Moroccan patients. The introduction of HBV vaccination in the national schedule of new-born vaccination will be the leading strategy to control HBV infection.

Brian L Pearlman

Atlanta Medical Center, USA

Title: Hepatitis C Therapy: History, Standard Of Care, and Future Directions

Time : 14:45 - 15:15

Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Pearlman serves as Medical Director for the Center for Hepatitis C at Atlanta Medical Center in Atlanta, Georgia. He is Professor of Medicine at both the Medical College of Georgia and Emory School of Medicine. He completed his undergraduate and medical degree at the University of Miami, Florida and his post-graduate training at the University of Texas, Southwestern and Baylor Medical Center, both in Texas. Dr. Pearlman is widely published in clinical journals including The Lancet, Gastroenterology, Hepatology, Clinical Infectious Disease and Lancet Infectious Disease. He is active in both patient care an in teaching physicians, and has been the recipient of numerous teaching awards. He is also an active investigator in hepatitis-C related research.

Abstract:

Chronic hepatitis C infection, which is estimated to infect 170 million persons worldwide, has undergone a rapid evolution in therapy. The goal of treatment is to achieve a sustained virologic response or SVR which has been associated with histologic regression of hepatic fibrosis, improved liver-related mortality and diminished overall mortality. For more than a decade, the standard therapy for genotype 1, the most common worldwide isolate, was peginterferon and ribavirin which achieved at best an SVR rate of 45% but was fraught with a multitude of side effects and usually required 48 weeks of treatment. The past few years has seen the near elimination of interferon and the advent of direct acting antiviral agents including NS3-4A protease inhibitors, NS5a inhibitors and nucleotide and non-nucleotide NS5b polymerase inhibitors, that when used in combination, achieve greater than 90% SVR routinely, even in populations that had been heretofore considered difficult to treat. The duration of treatment ranges from 8 to 24 weeks, and therapy is much easier to tolerate, relative to interferon-containing regimens of the recent past. The major limitation of these contemporary regimens is the cost, although medicoeconomic models have shown them to be cost-effective. Future antiviral regimens for hepatitis C are expected to be active across all genotypes (pangenotypic) and may require as little as six weeks of therapy.

  • Respiratory and Emerging/Re-emerging Viruses
Speaker

Chair

Farshad Guirakhoo

GeoVax.Inc,USA

Speaker

Co-Chair

C. Yong Kang

Western University,Canada

Speaker
Biography:

Cai Jiehao has gained the master's degree from Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University in 2013.Then, he worked at Children’s Hospital of Fudan University.( Which ranked best children hospital in China inlast year). He is a pediatrician in department of Infectious Diseases. His research areas is epidemiology and the clinical treatment of infectious diseases. He has published 2 papers in reputed journals.

Abstract:

Influenza A/H3N2 viruses are associated with the most severe epidemics. Antiviral resistance and continued antigenic drift are the major concerns regarding the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza. The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence and frequency of antiviral drug resistance in influenza A/H3N2 viruses circulating among Shanghainese children from June 2009 to May 2012 and to understand the genetic evolution of the haemagglutinin (HA) epitopes. Nasopharyngeal/throat swabs were collected from outpatients with influenza-like illness. Of the 3475 children tested, 344 (9.9%) were positive for influenza A/H3N2 viruses. Epidemics of influenza A/H3N2 occurred in July-September 2009, August 2010-January 2011, and November 2011-May 2012. The 71 A/H3N2-positive specimens were sequenced to characterize the genotypic antiviral resistance and genetic drift in the HA epitopes. All of the 71 A/H3N2 viruses sequenced were genotypically resistant to adamantine but sensitive to oseltamivir. The HA1 sequence analysis revealed that the A/H3N2 viruses underwent constant mutations in the HA antigenic sites over the three seasons compared with the corresponding vaccine strains, and amino acid changes in at least three epitopes were observed each season. Phylogenic analyses indicated that the A/H3N2 strains circulating in Shanghai fell into clades different from those of the corresponding seasonal vaccine strains and were grouped into the A/Perth/16/2009 genetic clade and the A/Victoria/208/2009 genetic clades 3B, 3C, and 5. The continuous monitoring of genetic drift and antiviral resistance of influenza viruses is important for the management of influenza and for updating the vaccine composition.

Speaker
Biography:

Chunyan Liu, assistant researcher, has completed her PhD in 2014 from Capital Medical University. She has been working in virology deparment, Beijing Pediatric Research Institute, Beijing Children’s Hospital since 1996. She won the WHO and ESCV fellowship to study at virolgy department, Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control (SMI) in 2003 and 2004. She has participated in numerous projects and studies in respiratory and virology and published over 20 papers in related aspects. She is the secretory of China National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases.

Abstract:

Human adenoviruses (HAdV) play a significant role in pediatric respiratory tract infections. To date, over 60 types of HAdV have been identified. Respiratory specimens were collected from pediatric patients with ALRTIs in the emergency department or from those admitted to Beijing Children’s Hospital between March 2007 and December 2012. Infections with common respiratory viruses were determined by PCR or RT-PCR. HAdV positive samples were further typed by PCR and sequencing. Among 3356 patients with ALRTIs, 194 (5.8%) were found to have HAdV infection. HAdV infection was primarily confined to children (88.35%) less than 5 years of age. A total of 11 different types of HAdV were detected throughout the study period, with HAdV-B7 (49.0%) and HAdV-B3 (26.3%) as the most prevalent types, followed by HAdV-C2 (7.7%) and HAdVC1 (4.6%). Newly emerging and re-emergent types or variants, HAdV-B55, HAdV-C57, and HAdV-B14p1, were identified. Results also included the reported first case of co-infection with HAdV-C2 and HAdV-C57. Clinical entities of patients with single HAdV infection were similar to those with mixed HAdV/respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections. Patients with HAdV-B7 infection had longer duration of fever and higher serum levels of muscle enzymes than HAdV-B3-infected patients.During the study period, HAdV-B7 and HAdV-B3 were the predominant types identified in pediatric ALRTIs. HAdV-B7 infection tends to have more severe clinical consequences. The presence of newly emerging types or variants and co-infection with different types of HAdV highlights the need for constant and close surveillance of HAdV infection.

Fahad A Alhizab

College of Veterinary Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia

Title: Searching for the potential Reservoir of MERCoV in positive dromedary camel Populations
Speaker
Biography:

Fahad A Alhizab is working as professor and dean in College of Veterinary Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia.

Abstract:

Middle East Respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERSCoV) is one of the major health concerns not only in Saudi Arabia but also worldwide. This is due to the high morbidity, and mortality among the affected people up to 60 %. Others and we has been recently reported the presence of neutralizing antibodies in sera of dromedary camels in different regions of Saudi Arabia. We also reported for the first time the complete genome sequencing of MERSCoV from camels and deposited these sequences in the gene bank. Viruses isolated from camels are quiet identical to that of human moreover, camel viruses are able to replicate in human cells of respiratory origins both in vitro and ex vivo model. However, the exact mechanism of transmission from camels to human still unidentified. There might be other options such as presence of unidentified intermediate host or insects that completing the circuit from dromedary camels to human. To test this hypothesis, we selected one farm previously showed the presence of the virus last year. Samples have been collected from different birds live close by this dromedary camel herd such as doves, sparrow as well as from mites, ticks, ticks, mosquitoes, flies. Swabs and sera were collected from the indicated birds as well as from camels. Total RNAs were collected from the indicated birds as well as from flies, mites, ticks and mosquitoes. Detection of the virus was done by the standard Real time PCR kits using the RDRP primers and probes. Detection of the viral antibodies was done by the Pseudovirus particle neutralization Assay. Our results showed that the only animal showing neutralizing antibodies to MERSCoV is dromedary camels whereas, none of the tested sera from other species showed any titre for MERS. Meanwhile, swabs from tested birds, flies and mosquitoes were negative as well. These results suggested that transmission of MERS is much more complicated than expected. We suggest the continuous search for the intermediate host of MERs among other species of animals and birds or even rodents and bats. Further studies are currently in progress to explore the potential roles of camels in the transmission of MERS as well as the possibility of other intermediate hosts if any.

Speaker
Biography:

María Karla Martínez is working as professor in Natural Antiviral Laboratory,Department of Microbiology and Virology, Faculty of Biology, University of Havana, Cuba.

Abstract:

This study proposed theevaluation of four multiplex real timePCR for the diagnosis of 15 human respiratory viruses causing acute respiratory infection, as well as the introduction of the optimized system for the diagnosis and laboratory surveillance. For the optimization of multiplex real time PCR 352 nasopharyngeal swabs from July-August 2013 were used, multiplex RT-PCR was used as ¨gold standard¨ technique. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and kappa index of multiplex real time PCR was determined. Efficiency of simple and multiplex real time PCR was calculated by calibration curve and slope determination. In addition, laboratory diagnosis in the period September 2013 to May 2014 with the optimized multiplex real time PCR was performed. Of the total of samples processed for optimization, 162 were positive by multiplex real time PCR and 112 by gold standard technique. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and average kappa of the evaluation assays was 100%, 98.4%, 67%, 100% and 0.8, respectively. Furthermore, efficiency values for multiplex real time PCR systems were in the range 90.30 % to 103.09 % similar to those obtained by the simple system. Introduction of optimized assays allowed the detection of 1290 clinical samples positive for respiratory viruses, with the highest positivity percentage for human respiratory syncytial virus, 47.83%. In summary, multiplex real time PCR was more sensitive than multiplex RT-PCR and the efficiency values were similar to the simple real time PCR. These optimized systems allowed to update the algorithm for the diagnosis and surveillance of respiratory viruses in Cuba.

A K Prasad

Indian Virological Society,India

Title: Why concern about Influenza World wise?
Speaker
Biography:

Dr.A.K.Prasad is the currently working as President of Indian Virological Society.He is also the chairman of Influenza Foundation of India.He was elected Fellow of the Geriatric Society of India (FGSI) 2014 at their Nagpur Convention (8-9 November, 2014).He has also Published over 60 Research Papers in national & International Journals & 3 Books (Chapter on Influenza).He has also received Life Time Achievement Award conferred by the Geriatric Society of India on 06th November, 2014 at the Vaccine Advocacy for the S E Asian Countries held at Delhi.

Abstract:

A disease known almost from the time civilization begun high morbid and mortality has been associated with Influenza. Record suggested the reason to stop WW 1; one was the disease influenza which had devastating effect in human as well as in swine. The H1N1 virus was highly pathogenic to man as well as swine. This influenza pandemic estimated to have killed 40-50 million human lives, more than the WW 1. Past century has seen two more influenza pandemics with equally devastating effect. In 1918-1919 the virus affected both human & swine. The influenza pandemic started with Swine in Mexico (2009) causing infection in human there spread very fast to USA and all over the world in just 3-months. A pandemic was declared by WHO. The virus responsible for this had three mutation received genes from swine, human as well as birds (H1N1) although very invasive but had low pathogenicity and the deaths recorded was very few as compared to other influenza pandemics, world has seen. Interestingly, this virus has replaced the old H1N1 from the influenza preventive seasonal vaccine as not seen in circulation. The main concern today is that although human influenza strains are few but today human lives under a threat of influenza from other hosts mainly the bird influenza. Domesticated and the wild birds have all the influenza viral strains known till today in all combinations of H & N. The threat started when 18 farm persons got infected in 1997 from birds and 6 died making this virus as most pathogenic and the infection was directly from the diseased birds. This was unknown. Till then, there used to be one intermediary host working as biological incubator. Total killing of the bird population contained the infection but since 2003-4 human cases has been observed in South East Asian Countries. A pandemic due to H5N1 has been in waiting to take place and could be started anywhere. But this is not the only bird influenza virus posing pandemic fear in human; today several other avian (HPAI) are lurking around to become pandemic human stain. Preventive human seasonal vaccine is available but no pandemic vaccine since the influenza pandemic remains unknown.

  • Agriculture and Plant Virology

Session Introduction

Vijay Kumar

International centre for Genetic Enginereing and Biotechnology,India

Title: The HBx oncoprotein of hepatitis B virus promotes cell transformation by stimulating rDNA transcription and ribosome biogenesis

Time : 16:30 - 16:50

Speaker
Biography:

Vijay Kumar is currently a J.C. Bose Fellow at the the International centre for Genetic Enginereing and Biotechnology (ICGEB), New Delhi. He completed his Ph.D from the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India and post-doctoral research at the Institute of Chemical Biology, Strasbourg, France. He has been a Principal Invstigator and head of the Virology Group at ICGEB. He has published over 100 papers in reputed journals and served as editorial board member of many journals. He is also a fellow of three Indian Science Academies of India.

Abstract:

The pleiotropic HBx oncoprotein of Hepatitis B virus is well known to promote the expression of several host proteins that are known to support the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Further, HBx engages multiple signalling and growth-promoting pathways to enhance ribosome biogenesis and cell proliferation. Interestingly, hepatic tumors show elevated levels of host Upstream Binding Factor (UBF) and nucleophosmin (NPM) that are essential for rDNA transcription and ribosome biogenesis. However, their role in cell transformation remains elusive. We investigated the oncogenic activity of UBF and NPM after co-expressing them with HBx in immortalized human hepatocytes (IHH) and human hepatoma Huh7 cells. We found that HBx stabilized the intracellular levels of NPM protein and translocated it into the nucleolus where it facilitated the recruitment of RNA polymerase I transcriptional machinery and enhanced rDNA transcription. Besides, HBx stimulated the expression of UBF gene by enhancing c-Myc occupancy on the UBF gene promoter. Enhanced UBF expression led to a marked increase in cell proliferation and transformation of IHH cells. Thus, our study provides some compelling evidences in support of HBx-mediated increase in NPM and UBF levels that abet oncogenic onslaught in hepatic cells by increasing rDNA transcription and ribosome biogenesis.

Speaker
Biography:

I am Associate professor I participate in workshops a conferences at USA, France, Italy, Jordan, Syria, Egypt, Lebanon, Morocco and Emirate. I am completed my PhD in field of plant pathology (virology) at age of 44 year from University of Khartoum, Sudan

Abstract:

Tomato samples with typical symptoms of Tomato Yellow leaf curl Disease (TYLCD) were collected open field and green house from Bara town (North Kordofan State) in Sudan. PCR was used to identify the pathogen using degenerate primers of Geminiviruses (AVcore and ACcore). To determine exactly the virus strain, multiplex PCR was used with sets of specific primers for tomato yellow leaf curl virus Almeria strain (TYLCV-Alm), tomato yellow leaf curl virus Israel strain (TYLCV-IL), tomato yellow leaf curl mild strain (TYLCV-mld) and tomato yellow leaf curl virus Sardinia strain (TYLCSV). All samples were positive with degenerate primers and negative with all other specific primers. PCR products were cloned and sequenced and the results showed that all isolates tested were found to be related to Tomato leaf curl Sudan virus. The highest nucleotide identities (>95%) were obtained with members of the species from Sudan and Yemen.

Speaker
Biography:

HE hold a PhD in Bacteriology from Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt. Currently, he is a professor of molecular biology at the Department of Plant Protection and Biomolecular Diagnosis, City of Scientific Research and Technology Applications, Alexandria, Egypt. He is the Head of the Department of Plant protection and Biomolecular Diagnosis. He has published more than 110 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of repute.

Abstract:

Potato virus Y(PVY) is an important virus that infectssolanaceous crops in Egypt. The virus belongs to the genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae. To examine the presence and distribution of the virus, sempatomology samples were collected from different governrate in Egypt. Virus dteremination was performed on the collected plant samples using ELISA. Moreover, sap of ELISA positive samples was used for mechanical transmissionon different nicotiana plant hosts and the viral symptoms appeared as mild mosaic onNicotianatabacum cv. Samsun and mosaic and leaf deformation onN. whiteburley, but it appeared as vein clearing and mosaic onN. glutinosa.Theviralcoat protein gene (PVY-CP) was amplified using RT-PCR and band of ~900bp size was observed.Sequenceand the sequence analysisof the nucleotides of PVY-CP showed a high similarity with the other PVY coat proteingenes. The CP gene of Borg El-Arab is closely related to CP France isolate with similarity 95%. Whenever, the coat protein isolated from Kafr El-Zayatsampleswas closely related to PVY-CP Germany isolate with identity 90 %. To differentiate between the two expected PVY isolates, sequence alignment and RFLP using three different restriction enzymes and results confirm that Egypt have at least to isolates from PVY. Plant-viral interaction was examined on three potato cultivars (Spunta, Cara and Diamont) when inoculated with the partial purified PVY particles. The Real Time PCR results revealed that the expression of the viral coat protein was highin Spuntaculivarwhen compared with the other two cultivars.

Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Sunil Kumar Snehi is a Assistant Professor in Department of Microbiology, Barkatullah University, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh. He obtained his Ph. D. degree (2012) from University of Lucknow, Lucknow and CSIR-National botanical Research Institute, Lucknow on “Molecular studies of virus/es causing severe mosaic disease in Jatropha species cultivated in India and development of their management strategies”. Dr. Snehi has more than 09 years of research experience on area of plant virology. Dr. Snehi has worked on molecular detection, identification and characterization of Begomovirus, Cucumber mosaic virus, Potyvirus and Phytoplasma species from various horticulture, ornamental, weed and economically important crop plants of India. He has published 56 research papers in national and international repute journals and published 04 book chapters in international published books. Dr. Snehi has received International Travel grant awards by Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), under the Department of Science and Technology (DST), New Delhi as a Young Scientist on 02.09.2014 to present a research paper in the “4th World Congress on Virology” held on October 06-08, 2014) San Antonio, TX, USA.

Abstract:

Cucurbitaceous crops grown in India have their economic importance as vegetables and as fruits. The begomoviruses and their associated diseases in cucurbit crops are emerging problems throughout India. Begomoviruses cause a number of serious diseases of cultivated crops and they are considered as the major constrains for cultivation of several crops all over the world. Begomoviruses cause some typical symptoms of yellow mosaic, yellow vein, yellow vein net, leaf curl, distortions, enation, growth stunting and fruit deformation resulting in drastic reduction of yield and market quality of various cucurbitaceous crops grown all over India. The yellow mosaic and yellow vein symptoms were observed on bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo), pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima), sponge gourd (Luffa cylendrica), ridged gourd (L. acutangula) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) being cultivated in Utter Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh during a survey. The presence of begomovirus was detected from the total DNA extracted from infected leaf samples of these species by PCR using the specific primers of a well characterized begomovirus. The ~800 bp amplicons of these isolates were cloned, sequenced and data obtained were compared with each other and with sequence database available in GenBank for best sequence identities and phylogenetic relationships. Based on highest 97-99% sequence identities and closest phylogenetic relationships, four representative begomovirus species were identified as Ageratum enation virus (from T. dioica), Squash leaf curl China virus (from C. maxima); Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (from M. charantia, L. cylendrica and L. acutangula) and Tomato leaf curl Palampur virus (from C. pepo). These results suggested existence of a high genetic diversity among begomoviruses infecting cucrbitaceous crops. The details of research finding will be discus in the conference.

Speaker
Biography:

Isabel Garcia-Luqueg is working as associate professor in University of Seville,Spain.

Abstract:

We have isolated de cDNA and characterized the Tetraspanin 8 (Tet8) from C. chinense plants whose mRNA its induced in both compatible and incompatible interactions with the Italian and Spanish strains of Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV-I and –S) respectively. Its induction it is associated to ethylene induced PR2-gn1 mRNA but not to the salycilic acid-induced PR1 mRNA. It is located at both the plasmodesmata and cellular membranes and its Agrobacterium-mediated overexpression in Nicotiana benthamiana plants inhibits both the local and systemic movement of the tobamoviruses PMMoV-S and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) without affecting viral replication. This inhibition is specific for the members of the tobamoviruses group assayed but it doesn’t have any effect on Potato Virus X, Tobacco Rattle Virus nor in Plum Pox Virus. Assay with transgenic N. benthamiana plants in which either the salycilic acid or jasmonic acid production are inhibited revealed that none of this defence responses are involved in the inhibition of viral movement, so implying that is the ethylene-mediated defence response the metabolic route implied. Furthermore, the overexpression of TET-8 in N. benthamiana plants leads to a Programmed cell death (PCD) associated to nuclear death, overproduction of ROS and it is associated to vacuolar programmed cell death, being for the first time that a tetraspanin in plants is associated to cell death.

Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Eybishtz Assaf has completed his PhD from Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment On the issue of "Characterization of Genes Differentially Expressed in Tomato yellow left curl virus (TYLCV) Resistant and Susceptible Tomato Lines: Analysis of Involvement in TYLCV Resistance". Today he is a tomato breeder and Turkey R&D managing director in Tomatech R&D Ltd. He has published 6 papers in reputed journals

Abstract:

Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a whitefly-transmitted geminivirus which causes devastating loss of tomato crops worldwide. This study is based on the known resistance alleles Ty-1, Ty-3 which mapped to different region on chromosome 6. Recent publication suggests they rather be alleles of the same gene (Verlaan et.al; 2013). we collaborated with Dr. Rotem Neta from the Hebrew University and DYN Diagnostics LTD aimed to identify Real Time PCR (RT-PCR) based marker linked to gene confer resistance, a new RT-PCR markers, TY-13 found more reliable in our tested lines. We tested plants from 9 Tomatech commercial hybrids and 34 different lines from F-3 till F-10 generation lines. TY1 match in 72.22 %, TY3 match in 77.77% and TY13 match in 81.11% to the symptom scoring. The added advantage was while TY1 and TY3 markers mismatch was false positive and negative, TY13 mismatch was only false positive, meaning no sensitive plant escaped from TY13 marker. Further test was made on 376 plants, from 4 different commercial hybrids and 11 different F2 populations. In this analysis we identified four performances: full match between Ty1-Ty3-Ty13, match only between Ty1- Ty13, match only between Ty3- Ty13 and incompatibility between Ty1, Ty3, Ty13. The correlation between the markers was 80% for TY1, 73% for TY3 and 90% for TY13. TY3 marker didn’t respond on one of our F2 populations from the S. habrochaites source, while TY13 fits to TY1 and clearly identified with the symptom scoring. These results confirmed the reliability and the advantage of using TY13 marker. TY13 identify resistance from several sources, reduces the need of using two different markers in parallel, and increasing the reliability of the decision in the breeding process.

Y.S.Ahlawat

Indian Agricultural Research Institute,India

Title: Indian Citrus Ring Spot Mandrivirus, Its Diagnosis And Management
Speaker
Biography:

Professor Ahlawat completed his PhD from Agra University. He joined Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi in 1968 and retired as Principal Scientist and Professor of Virology in 2005. Presently he is Emeritus Scientist in Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of India. He has published more than 150 papers in reputed journals. He handled several National and International Projects related to Plant virology. He served several Professional societies in various capacities. He served as President of Indian Phytopathological Society and Secretary General of Indian Society of Citriculture. He supervised 12 PhD students who are holding good positions in Academic Institute and Universites.

Abstract:

As the name indicates, Indian citrus ring spot disease was originally reported from India and so far it is restricted to India. Field affected trees show typical yellow rings in most of the leaves. The incidence of the disease ranged from 5-83.8% and a yield loss was estimated from 20.5 to 98.38%. Natural infection of Indian citrus ring spot virus (ICRSV) was observed in sweet oranges, mandarins, limes and lemons. ICRSV is transmitted by grafts and by mechanical inoculation from citrus to herbaceous hosts like Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa, French bean, soybean, cowpea and Vicia faba major. No vector is known but virus particles were observed in pollen grains. A filamentous virus of 650 x 13 nm with clearly visible cross banding was associated with the disease. Indian citrus ring spot virus is the only current member of the genus Mandrivirus in the family Flexiviridae. ICRSV genome is positive sense single stranded RNA of about 7.5 kb without poly-A tail and with a coat protein of 34kDa. ICRSV have 6% nucleic acid. The viral genome was fully sequenced which consists of 7560 nucleotides. It contains 6 open reading frames (ORFs) which encode putative proteins of 187.3, 25,12, 6.4, 34 kDa respectively. Function of ORF 6 is unknown which differentiate ICRSV from Potexviruses.. ICRSV was detected in ELISA, ISEM, DIBA, Nucleic acid hybridization, Western blotting and RT-PCR. The virus can be eliminated by shoot tip grafting and replacing infected trees with healthy plants.

Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Mohammed did his Ph. D. in Biotechnology in 2011 he has good academic record and published scientific papers in well reputed peer reviewed journals. He had been worked on developing new improved varieties of crop plants that are resistant to biotic and abiotic stress. He was developed transgenic Brassica juncea L. that showed enhanced sulphur uptake and can be grown profitably in the areas in India where sulphur deficiency are more prevalent. In addition to this, he standardised high efficiency regeneration protocol for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L cv. HS6) which is very challenging because most of the previously established protocol are for only cocker variety that is no longer cultivated now. He had also done some pioneering experiments in establishing nanoparticle mediated plant transformation system. Currently he is working on silencing viral genes of Cotton leaf curl virus disease (CLCuVD).

Abstract:

Cotton leaf curl disease is a serious and complex disease of cotton causing enormous losses in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production. Cotton leaf curl virus has become highly virulent due to its genetic recombination that overcomes virus resistance in conventionally developed resistant varieties of cotton. One possible way to overcome this disease is RNA silencing. We have attempted to apply miRNA approach for silencing viral genes. In the present study, we have predicted potential targets of cotton miRNAs against Cotton leaf curl virus genome. Two miRNAs, targeting AC1, AC2, AC4 and beta C1 genes of Cotton leaf curl virus, were selected for their expression in G. hirsutum. The hypocotyl explants of G. hirsutum were used for the transformation with Agrobacterium containing miRNA gene constructs. Transformed G. hirsutum plants were checked by molecular analysis for the presence of miRNA and these plants were challenged with the virus through B. tabaci vector. All the transgenic plants remained healthy and none of them showed any symptoms even in latter stage of growth.

Speaker
Biography:

Kavous Ayazpour was born in 1971 in Jahrom, Iran. He earned a Bachlor of Science degree in plant protection in the University of Shiraz, in July 1997. He received his Master of Science degree from the Plant Pathology Department at the Science and Research Branch of Islamic Azad University in Tehran, Iran, in September 1999. He received his PhD degree from the department of Plant Pathology in University Putra Malaysia, in December 2011. He is currently a lecturer in Jahrom Branch, Islamic Azad University, Jahrom, Iran.

Abstract:

For full genome sequencing and determination of taxonomic position of tomato yellow leaf curl virus isolated from the Aabdan, Kangan and Asalooyeh of Boushehr province, 28 samples of tomato was collected from tomato farms of these regions in the winter of 1391. Using degenerate primers of begomoviruses (primer BC/ PCRV 181) a fragment (500bp) was amplified in Asalooyeh sample in polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Using the sequence of this fragment, a primer pair was designed (FarsC/FarsV) to achieve the full genome sequence of the virus. Using the combination of primers (FarsC/ PAL1V 1978) / (FarsV /TYLCV-[Ab] 1997C) complete sequence of the Asalooyeh virus was determined. Using Bioinformatics programs and the comparison of complete genome of the virus with other viruses in Gene bank the taxonomic position of Asalooyeh isolate was determined. This is a member of Omani group of tomato yellow leaf curl virus. Also according to the obtained dendrogeram and proximity of this isolates with Arad isolate of Larestan shows the possible movement of virus between border regions of Fars and Boushehr provinces.

  • Viral Hepatitis

Session Introduction

Syed Amir Abbas Naqvi

The Muhammad Hospital,Pakistan

Title: HEPATITIS C – A READILY CURABLE DISEASE

Time : 17:10 - 17:30

Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Naqvi completed his Felloship in Internal Medicine from CPSP, Pakistan in 1995 and got through MRCPI in 2007. He an active member of ACG, ACP, AACE and the Endocrine Society. He has served as Assistant Professor ond Chief of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at Sargodha Medical College, UOS. He has a vast experience of treating HCV patients esp. Genotype 3.

Abstract:

Hepatitis C, a chronic, lifelong and life-threatening incurable disease has finally been transformed into a readily curable one. The treatment of hepatitis C has evolved over the years. Initially used IFN monotherapy. Subsequently, combination of ribavirin and IFN or PEG-IFN were used. For the first time, since its discovery in 1989, hepatitis C can be cured without ribavirin and pegylated interferon. PegIFN-based treatment regimens have well-documented adverse event (AE) profiles including influenza-like symptoms and depression, which have led to unfavorable discontinuation rates in clinical trials, and RBV also has associated side effects including teratogenicity, hemolytic anemia, and rash. PegIFN used to be too toxic for some patients to complete their treatment, had variable and low overall success rate and above all it was associated with a significant relapse rate.During the past 2 years, treatment regimens with new antiviral drugs have achieved sustained virologic response (SVR) rates of up to 90%-100%. These drugs will also benefit patients with severe fibrosis or cirrhosis by reducing disease progression, hepatic decompensation, and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV NS5B polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir has emerged as an important component of currently recommended regimens. Antiviral agents with different mechanisms of action are combined in order to increase efficacy and prevent resistance but for a more finite duration. We currently expect an overall low long-term relapse rate.

Gamal El Sawaf

Medical Research Institute Alexandria University,Egypt

Title: The Perpetual Challenge of Influenza Viruses and other Emerging Infectious Diseases in Egypt

Time : 17:30 - 17:50

Speaker
Biography:

Gamal El Sawaf born in Port Said, Egypt; 12 April 1955. He is a Professor of Microbiology and Immunology Medical Research Institute- Alexandria University - Egypt. He is a nationally recognized leader in infectious diseases. Dr. Sawaf graduated from the faculty of Medicine–Alexandria University in 1979. He got his Ph D in 1993 and his post doctor training course in the laboratory of infectious diseases (Cattedra Di Clinica Delle Malattie Infettive) University of Rome –Tor Vergata. He was rising through the academic ranks to Associate Professor in 1998 and to Professor in 2003. He was appointed the head of Microbiology Department in 2008 and the Director of the Medical Technology Center in 2010 and finally, the Dean of MRI in 2011 till the end of 2014. His main fields of research activities are in the clinical aspects pathogenesis and therapy of HCV, HIV and HHV-8 infection. Epidemiology and molecular characterization of Hepatitis viruses in Egypt. He has acted as a referee for a variety of national and international scientific journals and acted as a referee of research projects of the Alexandria University and of the STDF projects. He is a member of the American Society of Microbiology, The Egyptian Society of Microbiology and Egyptian Society of Immunologists. He is a project Leader of several research programmes on HCV, HHV and TB. His complete lists of publication are available upon request.

Abstract:

Emerging and re-emerging infections are very real and major problem that comprise a substantial fraction of all consequential human infections. In Egypt and elsewhere, emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases increasingly threaten public health and contribute substantially to the escalating costs of health care. There have been several outbreaks of emerging and re-emerging infections in Middle East including Egypt in recent years. They include avian influenza (H5N1), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), pandemic H1N1 influenza, Dengue and Chikungunya viral infections, hand, foot and mouth disease due to Enterovirus 71, the most recent MER CoV, tuberculosis infection, infection with hepatitis C virus - now recognized as a leading cause of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis in Egypt, and health care infections due to multiply resistant organisms. The factors causing emergence and re-emergence are still not well understood and insufficient efforts have been made to meet this challenge. Both human activity and climatic changes appear to be key factors in the emergence and reemergence of infections in this area. Uncontrolled urbanization arising from mass rural-to-urban migration creates vast urban slums. Slum dwellings which are overcrowded, poorly ventilated, without proper potable water supplies or sewerage systems are often the foci of outbreaks of respiratory and waterborne infections. Despite extraordinary advances in development of countermeasures (diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines), the ease of world travel and increased global interdependence have added layers of complexity to containing these infectious diseases that affect not only the health but the economic stability of societies. Our country needs to put in place a comprehensive plan to meet the challenge of emerging diseases. A multidisciplinary approach is required and the strategies involved should not merely confined to medical and health strategies. Strategies should also include social and behavioral, economic and political solutions. Health-based strategies would include improving surveillance, early detection and control of the spread of infectious diseases and the formulation of rapid response plans at national, regional and global levels.

Ilham QATTAN

Taibah University, AlMadenah AlMonwara, KSA

Title: MERS the epidemic whirlwind

Time : 17:50 - 18:10

Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Ilham Qattan, Is an Assistant Professor Of Medical and Molecular Virology, Deputy director of the Medical laboratories and department, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences. A member of the board directors of the genetic and gene diseases centre, Head of Prince Mohammed bin Fahd Chair for Viral Hepatitis scientific Chair in Al Medina Al Monwara, also a Member of the American Association of the Liver Diseases and Member of the Editorial Board of the European Scientific Journal

Abstract:

Recent outbreak of MERS (Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome) in the Saudi Arabia started off as a simple case, when a patient who was experiencing respiratory complications was brought into a private Hospital in Jeddah and his condition was getting worse without any explanation, the doctors took a sample of the sputum and diagnosed the disease as one he had identified many times before. This case was different however (Assiri et al., 2013). The normal tests carried out did not give a positive for any of the known viruses as they should have had. The Novel coronavirus or as it has now been renamed to as MERS-CoV has been prevalent in much of the Middle East and Europe with the primary sites including the countries of Qatar, Jordan, the UAR and Saudi Arabia (Agnihothram et al., 2014). Secondary virus exposure has also been seen in UK, France, Italy, Tunisia and Germany and has been caused by some sort of human to human interaction. MERS is closely linked to bat coronaviruses seen in China (BtCoV-HKU4 and BtCoV-HKU5) and is related to it phylogenetically. The natural reservoir of the virus has not yet been identified, however, seeing how it is so closely related to bats, it can be seen as that could have emerged from bats and from their environment. It is thought that there has been some form of transmutation to the humans through domesticated pets and livestock; however, it still has to be proven by hard evidence (Reusken et al., 2013).

Speaker
Biography:

Professor Jun-Wen Li, doctoral supervisor at institute of Health and Environmental Medicine, is the academic leader of environmental hygiene. His major interests are microorganisms detection technology in water and food, disinfection of drinking water and safety evaluation for recycle water. He was appointed as a visiting scholar to the Water Research Centre, University of New South Wales in the Australia (2006.9-2007.9) because of his outstanding work. His research has been supported by more than 20 foundation-programs. He has published more than 20 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of many journals.

Abstract:

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important public health problem in the developing world. The complete genome sequence of a genotype 4 strain of HEV(CH-YT-HEV02) from a patient has been determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CH-YT-HEV02 belongs to genotype 4, subtype 4a. Judging from the phylogenetic tree based on the full-length nucleotide sequences of all 70 genotype 4 HEV isolates retrieved from GenBank, the CH-YT-HEV02 isolates could serve as an indigenous strain. A broader comparison of amino acid within the HVR of different HEV isolates showed that the variety of HEV strain involved in different amino acid sequence of HVR, so the HVR region can be served as the identity of a HEV strain. Moreover, there were some special amino acid substitutions in the HVR region of different HEV genotypes. These conserved amino acids may proved to be useful diagnostic indicator of genotype and species of origin. These results could shed light on that genotypes 1 and 2 strains are restricted to humans whereas genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic. In addition, Our data comparing all HEV genotypes identified two amino acid motifs within ORF2(80-83 aa) and ORF3 (66-73 aa), which may prove to be a useful diagnostic indicator of genotype of an isolate. The two amino acid motifs in ORF2 and ORF3 might serve as signatures of genotype diversity of HEV, and the results may facilitate to understand the classification and epidemiology of HEV isolates.

Speaker
Biography:

Brigadier (Dr.) K.K. Maudar, served in the Army as a General & Paediatric Surgeon and Reader in Surgery & Prof & Head of Surgery in Armed Forces Medical College Pune from 1965 to 2000.Post retirement he served Manipal Center of Medical Sciences Pokhra Nepal as Head of Surgery for two years and Director & Chief of G I Surgery Bhopal Memorial Hospital & Research Center Bhopal under Indian Council of Medical Research from October 2002 to Oct 2013.Brig. Maudar is an active member of Association of Surgeons of India ; Indian Association of Paediatric Surgeons ; Indian Association of Surgical Oncology ; Society of Surgery for Alimentary Tract – USA ; Europeans Society of Surgical Oncology ; European Society of Surgical Research and American Academy of Paediatrics.He is the recipient of the various prestigious academic awards and honours viz. Hariom Ashrma Parerit Rangachari Award by Association of Surgeons of India ; General Amir Chand Award and Air Marshal Ajitnath & Gurushanti Devi Award by Armed Forces Medical Research Committee. He is also the recipient of various prestigious orations viz. Colonel Pandalai Oration Association of Surgeons of India ; Radha Devi Oration – Indian Association of Surgical Oncology and Silver Jubliee Oration – Indian Association of Surgical Oncology. Brig. Maudar has published over 100 papers in National and International Journals of repute. He is the Post Graduate Examiner for various Universities in India in addition to National Board Examination and Intercollegiate Member Royal Colleges of Surgeons (IMRCS) U.K., the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow and the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, U.K. He has visited a number of Medical Centres in UK & USA as a Visiting Professor. He visited Vanderbilt Medical Centre, Nashville, USA for colorectal cancer research and MSKCC, New York for hepatobiliary and breast cancer research as a Fellow of Union Against Cancer (UICC) . In addition, he has special interest in surgical research in the field of splenic regeneration, endothelial, pancreatic acinar cell culture studies and genetics and epigenetic research in G I Oncology and Hepatology.

Abstract:

Occult viral hepatitis is a complex clinical entity and is often associated with increased risk of hepato-cellular carcinoma (HCC), one of the main causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. It is believed that disruption of epigenetic machinery is a vital step towards developing HCC. Although, viral replication differentially affects host genomic integrity in the occult and active disease forms, probable consequence on mitochondrial redox mediated epigenetic regulation still remains to be elucidated. In our earlier studies we demonstrated that occult hepatitis elicits a PI3 kinase mediated DNA damage response. We further aimed to establish a molecular link between virus induced mitochondrial stress and redox mediated epigenetic regulation among occult hepatitis patients. To test this notion, we performed a comprehensive epigenetic analysis on host liver biopsies obtained from occult hepatitis B and C patients (n=10). Prior to biopsy blood samples were also obtained to analyze the levels of mitochondrial oxidative stress. The results observed herein suggested that in spite of low viral load both occult hepatitis B & C viral infections lead to impaired mitochondrial redox signaling and perturbed epigenetic machinery. Higher levels of 8-oxo-dG and reduced mtDNA copy number suggested functional disruption of mitochondrial assembly among occult HBV/HCV infected patients. While epigenetic perturbations in occult hepatitis patients were indicated by distorted histone patterns. We observed a dispersed lysine methylation patterns of monomethylated H4K20 (H4K20me3) and H3K9 (H3K9me1) histones, widely known to distinctly mark silent chromatin regions within the mammalian epigenome. Our study also reported that histone H3 and H2A other vital histone, often associated with chromatin condensation and regulation underwent significant modifications in the form of phosphorylation at Ser-10 (phospho-H3) and ubiquitination as uH2A, respectively. Taken together, our study provides novel insights of deregulated ‘histone code’ dynamics in occult hepatitis B/C patients that might play as an intermediate step for development and progression of HCC among these patients. It also showcases inextricable role of virus induced mitochondrial stress and epigenomic imbalance which may be helpful in identifying novel therapeutic targets for effective virus removal in occult states.