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Virology is the study of viruses. In 19th century a German anatomist assumed there are existence of some infectious agents that are too small to be observed with light microscopy and that were able to cause specific diseases. In plants Tobacco mosaic disease, after dark and light spots on infected leaves is the first experimentally discovered viral disease. Viruses are smallest known infectious agents they can infect animals, plants, insects and even bacteria. A wide range of viruses are characterized according to their size and their resistance to chemical or physicals agents (alcohol,ether, etc ) and pathogenic affects. In modern period they focused on two things 1.Viruses are replicated in but they dependent on host cell machinery 2.reombinant DNA is revolution began,both bacterial and animal viruses played a critical role in this revolution. Due to this reasons they mainly focused on use of virus in cellular and molecular biology as they probe to many diverse questions in biology.
The origin of human cancers to two major groups of animals viruses are retroviruses and DNA tumor viruses. Thus the plant virology, animal virology, bacterial virology , etc are being the parts of virology.Virus replication takes place in stages are adsorption , penetration, uncoating ,transcription, translation ,synthesis of nucieic acids ,assembly and the release of new virions. Many of the Antivirals were developed to treat viral infections by affecting of the viral replication stages.
In the last half of the 20th century, the field of epidemiology of viruses received an enormous boost with the discovery of specific tools. Viral epidemiology is concerned with study of incidence and spread of viruses in population over time. Host, virus and environmental factors are monitored to determine the dynamics of viral infections, the ultimate goal of which is to devise intervention strategies. In the epidemiological sense, 'pathogenicity' is the proportion of total infections that produce overt disease, which varies from virus to virus and may be affected by host factors. Mostly genetic alterations of the virus are concerned with two major mechanisms involved they are mutations such as recombination and reassortment ; and selection for resistance or susceptibility. This review focuses on the epidemiology of newly emerged virus diseases in man and animals, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, haemorraghic fevers, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, canine haemorraghic disease and respiratory syndrome in horses. Respiratory viral infections have the highest prevalence rates, influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) being the most important ones
Earlier, it is outside the main stream of the clinical laboratory medicine. In recent years, it is presently integrated into routine medical practice. It is mainly due to HIV and AIDS epidemic and the success of hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplantation has greatly increased the pool of patients at risk for serious opportunistic viral infections.the important character of diagnostic virology is the use of multiple methods for detecting viral infections.
Cell culture, the growth of defined population of cells not formed in to discrete tissue was formed a refinement of tissue culture formed the basis of diagnostic virology for many years, it is now replaced by non-culturing techniques based on immunological and molecular methods.
The first application of fluroscene antibody staining to diagnostic virology was the detection of influenza antigen in nasal smears by Liu. Rapid viral diagnosis implemented monoclonal antibody-based assays to detect a wide variety of viral antigens directly in clinical specimens. For viral diagnosis specimens used are blood, swab ,fluid ,tissue ,stool .for some certain viral infections, serological tests can be performed on saliva or urine.
Parainfluenza and Influenza viruses (PIVs) are the very common respiratory pathogens that can affect the infants and children worldwide. There are 3 types of seasonal influenza viruses, types A, B, and C. Influenza type A viruses are further classified into subtypes regarding to the combinations of 2 different proteins, the haemagglutinin (H) and the neuraminidase (N), located on the surface of the virus. Parainfluenza virus had been recovered from mice inoculated with an autopsy specimen from an infant with respiratory disease. Now it is represented as human parainfluenza viruses and it exist as four serotypes that were first recovered in 1960’s and HPIV1,2,3 were initially isolated from infants and children with lower respirsatory tract diseaseand HPIV 4 were recovered from children and young adults with minor respiractory tract illness. Hamsters are very sensitiveand permissiveto infection by HPIV 1,2,3. Infection is asympotomaticand undetectable.To prevent the infection in pediatric population ,the primary need is HPIV vaccines.
Earliest, crystalline polyhedral shaped bodies called polyhedra were first discovered in association with “wilting” disease of the silkworms. The discovery and characterization of additional insect families are polydnaviruses ,nudiviruses, nodaviruses , iridoviruses, cypoviruses,entomopoxviruses, etc.Currently,molecular studies on replication,assembly,host interactions of insect viruses have contributed enormously to molecular ,cellular ,organismal biology.the ease with which many insect viruses are propagated in cell cultures or live animals,the high yields virus particles or virus encoded macromolecules,and the simplicity with which many insect viruses can be genetically manipulated represent just a few experimental advantages provided by these pathogens. Insect viruses have also provided unique insight into virus evolution is due to close association of insects with plants and other animals,natural exchange and mxing of viruses is accelerated.
Hepatitis A virus is a infectious agent and that cause the disease Hepatitis A(It is a infectious disease of liver).Earlier is classified as enterovirus type 72 because of its physical and chemical chracteristics related to entero virus,but it differs in nucleotide and aminoacid sequences and sizes of HAV proteins are dissimilar and they replicate very slowly without cytopathic effect in cell cultureand they resistant to temperatures and drugs which can inactivate many picornaviruses and stable to pH-1,so due these reasons they was classifised into new genus,Hepatovirus with in the family Picornaviridae.An HAV isolate distinguished from HAV isolates is known as a strain.viruses recovered from different locations often represent differents strains,whereas viruses from individuals from outbreak usually represent the same strain.viruses from two or more locations can represent same strainor more than one strain may be present at a given location and time. Hepatitis A occurs sporadically and in epidemics worldwide, with a tendency for cyclic recurrences. It is one of the most frequent causes of foodborne infection. Epidemics related to contaminated food or water can erupt explosively, such as the epidemic in Shanghai in 1988 that affected about 300 000 people.
Viral oncology is a subdivision of oncology,in these it is concerned with treatment of human cancers /tumors with virus particles. The first evidence of tumor viral aetiology in 1907 when Ciuffo and his co-workers revealed that human warts may possibly be transmitted by cell-free filtrates derived from lesions. Seventy years later, papillomaviruses were allied to human cancer. In 1908, Ellermann and Bang, stated that also leukemia possibly be transferred to healthy chicken by a cell-free filtrate of cells obtained from the affected birds. Approximately 20% of all cancers worldwide results from chronic infections, in specific, up to 15% of human cancers is characterized by a viral aetiology with higher incidence in Developing Countries.
Certainly, the infectious nature of specific tumors has important implications in their prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. In the 21st Century, the research on viral oncology field continues to be dynamic, with new significant and original studies on viral oncogenesis and as a translational research from virology for the treatment of cancer
It deals with nonhuman primate models of restoratively vital viral disease and also characteristic contaminations of nonhuman primates with human and animal viruses. It incorporates primate models of medicinally imperative viral diseases, for example, AIDS, theories on the beginnings of plague types of HIV, and viral illnesses brought on by non-simian infections in both wild and hostage primates.
Herpes is a infection and infected with the herpes simplex virus, can be due to either herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). HSV-1 is mostly transmitted by oral to oral contact to cause infection in or around the mouth. HSV-2 is almost completely sexually transmitted, causing infection in the genital or anal area .based on that they are known as oral and gential herpes. HSV-1 can also be transmitted to the genital area through oral-genital contact to cause genital herpes.Both infections are generally asymptomatic but can cause mild symptoms or painful blisters or ulcers at the site of infection.
Varicella-zoster virus and herpes simplex virus are the two human members of alphaherpes subfamily. While most of VZV genes are highly conserved with those of HSV,the genes in these two viruses often have different promoter regions and the pattern of gene expression during latency is very different (because single in HSV whereas six gene in VSV).
Viruses share a number of common features, viruses are able to pass through filters that retain or trap most known bacteria. Another feature of virus is complete dependence on host cellto reproduce itself. Viruses are the smallest self-replicating organisms. Individually viruses are simple, as a group they are extremely diverse in both replication strategies and structures. Structural Virology is the molecular mechanism used by viruses to invade host cells establish an infection and ensure that progeny virus particles are released into the environment, all while evading the host's immune defences. Structural models may have been too convincing, because many virologists persuaded to think of the protein capsid only as a rigid shell depicted in the static images. capsid proteins are responsible for an array of functions critical for completion of a virus lifecycle. Using structural virology smith, Andrewes, Laidlaw reveal the TMV has crystalline structure in 1933.An X-ray diffraction pattern obtained on a single crystal of tobacco necrosis virus in 1967.
Foamy is a type of retro virus and belongs to the genus spumavirus. These are complex from other genera of retro viruses in many ways .Name of Foamy viruses derived from the characteristic ‘foamy’ appearance of the cytopathic effect induced in the cells. Foamy virus in humans occurs only as a result of zoonotic infection. The differences between the spumaviruses and other retroviruses are in their lifecycle and that are FV buds from the endoplasmic reticulum instead of the plasma membrane,this difference gives FV a unique morphology.It is characterized by an immature looking core with an electron lucent center with glycoprotein spikes on the surface. Reverse transcription of the genome occurs at a later step in the replication cycle, which results in the infectious particles having DNA rather than RNA, this also leads to less integration in the host genome. The DNA found is linear and the length of the genome. FV has been isolated from patients with various neoplastic and degenerative diseases such as myasthenia gravis, multiple sclerosis, thyroiditis de Quervain, and Graves’ disease but the virus’ etiological role is still unclear. Recent studies indicate that it is not pathogenic in humans and experimentally infected animals.
Vaccines have been among the most effective health approach for protecting the individual against viral disease, with two of worlds successful vaccine being against small pox and poliovirus. Viral vaccines is a combination of inactivated viruses and activated viruses. Inactivated or killed viral vaccines contain viruses, they do not have ability to replicate and to bring about a response it contains an antigen. Activated or livevaccines contain the live form of the virus. The production of virus-based vaccines in large-scale cultures of animal cells in the early 1950s was the first industrial application of animal cell culture technology. Some of human vaccines produced in animal cells are the ones against measles, mumps and rubella. Currently, Virus like particles organizes a new vaccine concept. Such particles consist of self-assembled structural proteins from the virus which can elicit an immune response but as they lack the genetic material from the virus are safer vaccines, research going on the rational development of a triple-layered virus like particle vaccine against rotavirus using the baculovirus insect cell system as production platform.
At this time that at least several of the more important viral diseases can be controlled by utilizing antigens based on the biologic characteristics of the agent, and directed toward the reservoir of infection and the conditions favoring transmission of the infection. For the adequate control of viral infection three approaches seem possible are active immunization, an alteration of host defenses, chemoprophylaxis. From the known three alphaherpesviruses, only varicella zoster virus induced a lifelong immunity that fully protects against clinical signs of exogenous re-infection and, for most of the population, from any sign of reactivation from the latent state. Both the innate and adaptive components of the immune response are critical to effectively control viral pathogenesis in compared to that against many viruses, they do it remarkably well. Apparently some viruses are not associated with similar long lasting immunity to reinfection are respiratory virus and Para influenza virus. Development of an immune response to Antigen present on the surface of virions or virus-infected cells critical for immunity against virus infection. Antibody responses to surface viral protein or glycoprotein Ags again and again effectively limit infection of new cells and thus spread of the virus. Internal viral Ags can be important targets for T-lymphocyte responses that clear virus-infected cells but these responses alone cannot prevent subsequent infections. Viruses and their hosts co-evolve, viruses find ways to evade host defenses, and hosts adapt mechanisms to control virus replication. The host is equipped with mechanical barriers and innate immune mechanisms that can limit the initial encounter with a virus and adaptive immune mechanisms that provide immunity against repeated exposures to the same viral pathogen.
The virome is the community of viruses that populate an organism or ecosystem at any given time. This includes the “core” set of commensal viruses that do not give rise to clinical symptoms or viremia, combined with any acute or persistent infections that may be present. viral meta genomics is the method in which nucleic acid is isolated directly from environmental samples and sequenced without culturing or cloning. These methods permit not only the discovery of a wider range of viral pathogens, but also a broader assessment of the human virome in the absence of clinically recognized disease. According to two global surveys of the ocean virome, which focused mainly on DNA viruses infecting bacteria, have suggested that marine viruses, particularly phages are highly diverse and can exhibit distinctive biogeographic pattern have revealed a diverse array of DNA phages (e.g., Microviridae, Myoviridae, Podoviridae, and Siphoviridae) in marine environments and that local environmental conditions play an important role in structuring their diversity, little is known about the diversity of RNA viruses and eukaryotic viruses in the oceans and their global transport and disease potential .A metagenome is the total genetic(DNA and RNA) sequence derived from a viral community .Mathematically, the structure of a community may be represented by a graph whose functional form reflects the relative abundance distribution of its members.
HIV is a virus spread through certain body fluids that attacks the body’s immune system, specifically the CD4 cells, called T cells. Over time, HIV can destroy so many of these cells that the body can’t fight off infections and disease. These special cells help the immune system fight off infections if it is untreated, HIV reduces the number of CD4 cells (T cells) in the body. This damage to the immune system makes it harder and harder for the body to fight off infections and some other diseases. Opportunistic infections or cancers take advantage of a very weak immune system and signal that the person has AIDS. It is not transmitted by saliva ,sweat ,air or water .It is transmitted by certain body fluids—blood, semen ,pre-seminal fluid ,rectal fluids, vaginal fluids, and breast milk—from a person who has HIV can transmit HIV. These fluids must come in contact with a mucous membrane or damaged tissue or be directly injected into the bloodstream (from a needle or syringe) for transmission to occur. Mucous membranes are found inside the rectum, vagina, penis, and mouth. AIDS is not a virus but a set of symptoms (or syndrome) caused by the HIV virus. A person is said to have AIDS when their immune system is too weak to fight off infection, and they develop certain defining symptoms and illnesses. This is the last stage of HIV, when the infection is very advanced, and if left untreated will lead to death. Although there is currently no cure for HIV with the right treatment and support, people with HIV can live long and healthy lives, it is especially important to take treatment correctly and deal with any possible side-effects.
Poliovirus is a enterovirus and is composed of RNA genome and protein capsid,is the causative agent of poliomyelitis occurs in summer . Enteroviruses are a genus of positive sense single-stranded RNA viruses associated with several human and mammalian diseases. The 3 serotypes of poliovirus carry are antigenically distinct. Mostly poliovirus transmission occurs through contact with stool of infected person, less frequently occurs through contact with infected respiratory secretions or saliva. Polio vaccine in Poliovirus infection can provide lifelong immunity against the disease, but this protection is limited to the serotype involved. Infection with one type does not protect an individual against infection with other two types. The development of effective vaccines to prevent paralytic polio was one of the major medical innovations of the 20th century. Two different kinds of vaccine are available, an inactivated (killed) polio vaccine (IPV) and a live attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV). The presence of neutralizing antibody against polioviruses is considered a reliable correlate of protection against poliomyelitis. Coxsackievirus and Echovirus are the two other enteroviruses are distinguished from other enteroviruses by their pathogenicity for suckling rather than adult mice.Rhinovirus is the most common viral infectious agent in humans and is the predominant cause of the common cold. Human rhinoviruses (HRVs), first discovered in the 1950s, are responsible for more than one-half of cold-like illnesses. The viral genome consists of a single gene whose translated protein is cleaved by virally encoded proteases to produce 11 proteins. These belong to the family Picornaviridae and, are positive-sense, single-stranded-RNA.
Coronaviruses were first described in the 1960s from the nasal cavities of patients with the common cold. This virus belongs to the subfamily Coronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae. These are having exceptionally large RNA genomes of approximately 30 kilobases. Genome replication and transcription is mediated by a multisubunit protein complex comprised of more than a dozen virus-encoded proteins, this complex thought to bind specific to the cis-acting RNA elements. Earlier cis-acting RNA elements essential for coronavirus RNA synthesis have mainly been characterized using naturally occurring and genetically engineered defective interfering RNAs. Identification and characterization of DI RNAs in various coronaviruses have been instrumental in mapping the minimal RNA sequences and structures required for replication and packaging. Infection of host cell initiated by virus binding to receptors on the cells surface and subsequent fusion of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope with the host cell plasma membrane (mouse hepatitis virus)or endosomal membrane(human coronavirus).it binding and entryare importants determinants oof viral host range and tissue tropism . Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia, and bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis.
Poxviruses can infect both humans and animals and belongs to the family Poxviridae. In the 19th century, Jenner observed that inoculation with cowpox virus, a close relative of smallpox, conferred smallpox immunity. This observation established the practice of vaccination, although variolization continued into the 20th century. These are of orthopoxvirus ,parapoxvirus ,yatapoxvirus etc. orthopox virus include smallpox ,monkeypox, vaccinia, cowpox, buffalo pox, cantasgalo, and aracatuba viruses. parapoxviruses include orf virus, bovine papular stomatitis virus, pseudo cowpox virus, deerpox virus, and sealpox virus. The recognition that cutaneous exposure to the dried material of smallpox lesions caused a milder infection and induced permanent immunity led to the practice of variolization. Poxviruses are the largest and most complex viruses. They are linear double-stranded DNA viruses of 130-300 kilobase pair. The extracellular virion possesses 2 envelopes, while the intracellular virus has only one envelope. The virion contains a large number of proteins, at least 10 of which possess enzymatic activity needed for genomic replication.
Measles virus belong to the paramyxoviridae family with in the mononegaviralesorder.its non segmented, single stranded, negative sense RNA genome is encapsulated by the nucleoprotein to form anucleocapsid.it is a highly contagious human pathogen responsible for about half millions of deaths in 2004, with about 40 million infection worldwide each year.it comprises of mumps ,ebola and many emerging viruses like hendra viruses. Measles, also known as morbilli, is an infection of the respiratory system, immune system and skin caused by measles virus (MV), a paramyxovirus of the genus Morbillivirus. The severity of measles virus (MV) infection was largely continued by the development of a live attenuated vaccine that was introduced into the vaccination programs. The virus spreads by respiration either directly or through aerosol. The virus enters the host through the upper respiratory passages and infects the respiratory epithelium and the circulating immune cells located at that site. MV vaccines were prepared from live wild type strains that have been cultured under conditions that caused them to lose virulence without losing their ability to induce immunity.
Rubella is a contagious, generally mild viral infection that occurs most often in children and young adults. Rubella virus is the pathogenic agent of the disease rubella, and is the cause of congenital rubella syndrome when infection occurs during the first weeks of pregnancy.
It is also distinguished by red rash and is spread by airborne respiratory droplets (coughs or sneezes) or by saliva (shared drinks). Rubella virus genus is Rubivirus and belong to the family of Togaviridae, whose members commonly have a genome of single stranded RNA of positive polarity which is enclosed by an icosahedral capsid.
Flavivirusis a genus of viruses in the family Flaviviridae. This genus includes the West Nile virus, dengue virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, yellow fever virus, Zika virus and several other viruses which may cause encephalitis, as well as insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs) such as cell fusing agent virus , Palm Creek virus and Parramatta River virus .Flaviviruses are named from the yellow fever virus. The name yellow fever in turn originated from its propensity to cause yellow jaundice in victims.
Pure Microbiology provides a broad platform of a large plethora of research and plenty of new insights into different areas of Microbiology. Different branches of Microbiology include mycology, Virology, Immunology, infectious diseases , bacteriology, nematology, parasitology, etc., The antibiotics are the agents used against pathogenic bacteria, either orally or paternally
Viruses and viral diseases have been at the focuses of science, horticulture, and drug for centuries, and some of our most noteworthy difficulties and triumphs have included virology. Technological developments have prompted to a superior comprehension of progressing logical difficulties, for example, those posed by viruses
Current research in virology includes the investigation of mechanism of HIV replication and pathogenesis .Diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and HIV-1-associated dementia. Other research involves chronic and latent infections caused by viruses such as Epstein-Barr and Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpes virus and herpes simplex and the retrovirus. Scientists are also studying viral host interactions along with the mechanism of viral induced cellular transformation.
Drug-drug interactions happen when a drug interacts, or meddles, with another drug. change the way either of the drug demonstration in the body, or cause sudden reactions. The drug included can be doctor prescribed solutions, over-the-counter meds and even vitamins and normal items.