Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 5th World Congress on Virology Atlanta, USA.

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Day 3 :

  • Sympoisum on Anti-Viral Drug Combination Strategies
Speaker
Biography:

Ting-Chao Chou (born in Taiwan), received Ph.D. in Pharmacology from Yale University in 1970, and postdoctoral fellowship from Johns Hopkins University. Member of Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) and Professor of Pharmacology at Cornell University Graduate School of Medical Sciences. He is Honorary Professor at Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (1993-) and Visiting Professor at five universities. He was Director of Preclinical Pharmacology Core at MSKCC where he retired on June 1st, 2013. Dr. Chou published 273 articles which has been cited 22,336 times, with h-index: 65. He is inventor/co-inventor of 38 U.S. Patents. Prof. Chou is the Founder of PD Science, LLC., USA.

Abstract:

Drug combination is most widely used in the treatment of the most dreadful diseases such as AIDS and cancer. Quantitative determination of synergism is essential for efficient discovery and development of anti-HIV cocktails. Currently, the most widely used synergy assessment of all time is the combination index (CI) method (Chou TC and Talalay P, Adv. Enz Regul 22:28-55, 1984), one article alone has been cited by 4,357 scientific papers in 850 different bio-medical journals ["Google Scholar Citations - Ting-Chao Chou" ; or Thomson Reuters Web of Science: "http://www.reseracherid.com/rid/B-4111-2009"]. This presentation will focus on theoretical basis, experimental design, general equations, simulation algorithms and computerized simulation of synergism and antagonism at different dose and effect levels. Computer software, Compusyn, will be used for automated, quantitative simulation of synergism (CI<1), additive effect (CI=1) and antagonism (CI>1) automatically. The CompuSyn instantly generated the dose-effect curves, the Median-Effect plots, Fa-CI plots, the Fa-DRI plots and their Tables, isobologram for 2-drugs, and the polygonogram for n drugs, within seconds. This software, has been offered for free download upon registration, as a donation to the bio-medical communities and pharmaceutical industries beginning 8/1/2012 upon registration, via www. combosyn.com. As of Aug. 20, 2015, there have been 11,085 downloads by bio-scientists from 87 countries or territories.

Speaker
Biography:

Mohammad Intakhab Alam earned his PhD from University of Giessen, Germany in early 2008 and continued postdoctoral studies at the Institute of Medical Virology, University of Zurich Switzerland and University of Bonn, Germany. He is currently Assistant Professor of Medical Microbiology/Virology at EBN-Medical School, Zirve University, Gaziantep, Turkey. He has worked on many human RNA viruses (Influenza, HCV, YFV, HEV and RSV) and has published interesting antiviral research work and has great research interest in therapeutic interventions. He has served editorial board member of a Journal and currently full member of the prestigious American Society for Virology and International Society for Antiviral Research.

Abstract:

RNA viruses have evolved very fast due to high degree of mutation rate in their genome. Due to this high mutation rate and subsequently antiviral resistance developed by viruses, many FDA (Food and Drug Administration) approved antiviral drugs are being restricted in clinical settings. Antiviral resistance means that a virus is changed in such a way that the antiviral drug becomes less effective in treating infections caused by that virus. The therapeutic efficacy of current interferon (IFN) against RNA viruses is constantly becoming less effective, even tolerant with great side effects. Many notorious RNA viruses have been shown to escape the host immune defence by blocking the function of retinoic acid-inducible gene-1 (RIG-I) and also IFN-signaling. We have investigated immunostimulatory and antiviral effect of a RIG-I agonist 3p-RNA molecule that potentially produces IFN in Hepatitis C and Yellow Fever virus replicating cells and also enhances IFN-signaling to provide an antiviral state. The antiviral effect of 3p-RNA seems to be superior to recombinant IFN-alpha. Also influenza targeted FDA approved antiviral drugs rimantadine and amantadine have been shown to be ineffective because influenza has developed resistance against it. New antiviral drug strategies are based on understating the molecular mechanism involved in influenza viral infections and viral host factors that supports the virus replication. We have studied that influenza activates and utilize calcium dependent PKC-alpha mediated MAPK signaling-cascade for their efficient replication and using calcium antagonist impairs this virus host essential function leading to strong reduction in influenza replication. Calcium antagonist does not allow influenza to develop resistance against it however Oseltamivir does. This suggests that host essential factors of influenza targeted by calcium antagonist could be an interesting new antiviral strategy.

  • HIV and Other Retroviral Diseases Affecting Afro-Asian Continents
Speaker

Chair

Anjali Joshi

Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, USA

Speaker

Co-Chair

Marcin Sieńczyk

Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland

Session Introduction

Anjali Joshi

Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center,USA

Title: Role of CCR5 levels in HIV-1 evolution and pathogenesis

Time : 10:00 - 10:20

Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Anjali Joshi is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Biomedical Science at Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center. She pursued her PhD in Feline Immunodeficiency virus from North Carolina State University, Raleigh. Immediately after completing her PhD, she received four years of post-doctoral training at the National Cancer Institute, Frederick on retrovirus assembly and release. Her research interests include the role of cellular factors and viral domains in determining the site and process of retrovirus assembly, HIV pathogenesis and anti-HIV gene therapy.

Abstract:

CCR5 co-receptor expression levels in the host play an important role in HIV pathogenesis not only by regulating viral entry but also disease progression. Several genome wide association studies have recently linked the CCR5 genotype to HIV pathogenesis. Interestingly, the best evidence for the role of CCR5 levels in HIV pathogenesis comes from HIV+ individuals heterozygous for the CCR5delta32 gene, that show a marked delay in progression to AIDS. CCR5 levels are also regulated by promoter polymorphisms in humans resulting in a complex role in HIV infection and disease progression. However, it remains unknown how varying CCR5 levels affect HIV evolution and disease progression. We recently showed using T cell lines expressing low levels of CCR5 that co-receptor expression on cell surface affects HIV Envelope mediated bystander apoptosis while supporting virus replication. In these cells expressing low levels of CCR5, HIV replication studies resulted in the emergence of an adapted virus harboring the mutations E170K in V2 loop and N298Y in the V3 loop. The adapted virus maintained CCR5 tropism although the mutations arising in this study have been associated with CXCR4 tropism in patients. Interestingly, the adapted viruses exhibited an increase in Maraviroc IC50 presumably by evolving higher affinity for CD4 and/or CCR5. In vivo, in HIV infected patients, the CCR5 promoter polymorphisms 59353C, 58934G, 59029A and 59402A were associated with lower CD4 counts as well as prevalence of AIDS. Haplotype determination showed that the above polymorphisms were found in the non-HHC haplotype. Thus, CCR5 co-receptor levels may alter diseases progression rate as well as virus evolution in HIV infected individuals. Hence, caution needs to be implemented with recent gene therapy approaches as well as drugs targeting the CCR5 receptor for HIV treatment.

Vladimir Zajac

Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences,Russia

Title: The role of human microbiome in AIDS process

Time : 10:20 - 10:40

Speaker
Biography:

Vladimir Zajac has completed his PhD. in 1982 at the Cancer Research Institute of Slovak Academy of Sciences in Bratislava (Slovakia), where he worked as the Head of Department of Cancer Genetics from 1996 to 2010. He joined the Medical Faculty of the Comenius University as Associate Professor of Genetics in 2007. He has published 64 papers mostly in reputed journals and he was editor of the book „Bacteria, viruses and parasites in AIDS process“ (InTech, 2011).

Abstract:

AIDS currently represents one of the most serious healthy and social problem. It is therefore necessary to find new therapeutic targets dealing with the persistence of latent HIV reservoirs after antiretroviral therapy. Since intestinal epithelial cells, GALT and other mucosal tissues represent the main area for replication of the HIV virus, it can be assumed that the intestinal bacteria may play an important role in the etiology of AIDS. The idea that endogenous microflora influences the course of HIV infection is also supported by the finding that microbes greatly affect the reactivation of HIV in latently infected cells. DNA testing of bacteria and yeasts: a) from intestinal tract of American and Slovak HIV-positive patients; b) from respiratory tract of Cambodian and Kenyan HIV-positive children has detected sequences 90% homologous with the corresponding sequences of HIV-1. In bacterial extracts of all patient’s cohorts were identified HIV-like proteins using monoclonal antibodies against HIV-1 antigens p17, p24, gp41 and p55. HIV-like protein of size 95 kDa was detected by monoclonal antibodies against gp120 only in Candida species of Cambodian and Kenyan samples. Specific properties of patient’s microbes were detected by infection of HL-60 cells and reducing the viral load in HIV-positive patients after administration of probiotics E. coli Nissle 1917. Based on these results the presence of HIV-like sequences in microbes of the patients may be hypothetically explained that bacteria and yeasts serve as a natural host of HIV sequences since the beginning of mankind. Thanks to countless epidemics individuals carrying the pathogenic microbes with HIV sequences, largely extinct. However, by administration of antibiotics, drugs and homo anal sex has recently been expanded again. Pathogenic microbes bearing HIV sequences moved to the majority, penetrate from the intestinal tract into the blood, invade the lymphocyte and the process of immunodeficiency may start.

Thatiane L. Sampaio

University of Brasilia,Brazil

Title: HIV-1 production is dependent on the incorporation of Dynamin-2 by Nef

Time : 11:00 - 11:20

Speaker
Biography:

Thatiane L. Sampaio worked during a year at University at California in San Francisco as Junior Biologist and completed her PhD, at the age of 28, from Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. She has developed her postdoctoral studies at University of Brasilia, Brazil, and works currently at Federal Institute of Brasilia, Brazil, as a Professor of Biology

Abstract:

Nef is a virulence factor for Human Immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and promotes progression to AIDS. Nef interaction with Dynamin 2 is required for HIV-1 infectivity, and Dynamin-2 is incorporated into HIV-1 particles. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the interaction between Dynamin-2 and Nef during HIV-1 production. Dyanmin-2 incorporation is necessary for both, HIV-1 wild type and Nef-deficient infectivity during depletion of Dynamin-2 by small interfering RNA. The overexpression of Dynamin-2 allows for the enhancement of infectivity of HIV-1 wild type, but is not able to rescue HIV-1 Nef-deficient infectivity. Moreover Dynamin-2´s overexpression inhibits HIV-1 Nef-deficient production. A Dynamin-2 product is detected less in HIV-1 wild type particles when compared to Nef-deficient HIV-1 particles. This data suggests that Nef and Dynamin-2 interaction is an important factor for virus infectivity and production.

Cathy Nisha John

University of the Western Cape,South Africa

Title: HIV and Other Retroviral Diseases Affecting Afro-Asian Continents

Time : 11:20 - 11:40

Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Cathy Nisha John has completed her BDS, from Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, India. She completed her diploma in cosmetic dentistry in 2009 and has achieved a Masters degree in Periodontics in 2012, from the University of the Western Cape. Cape Town. South Africa. She has three publications to her credit including an abstract in reputed journals. She has presented her papers in several international conferences. At present, she is working in a private hospital in the Sultanate of Oman. She is still keen on extending her research in various infectious diseases.

Abstract:

Retroviruses belong to the Retroviridae family, involving a group of single-stranded RNA viruses. The RNA virus invades a host cell, releases a reverse transcriptase enzyme, and enables the cell to make a proviral DNA which gets integrated into host DNA. They can cause serious diseases in humans including tumors, autoimmune diseases, rare anemias, and syndromes affecting the immune system of the host cell. Transmission of retroviral diseases is mainly through unprotected sexual contact, contaminated blood exposure, or by vertical transmission from mother to child during pregnancy or childbirth. Human Immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus attacking the immune system of human body, advancing into Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The gradual deterioration of the immune system would compromise the host defense in the dento-gingival region. Certain ulcers or erosions of oral and/or genital mucosa, gingivitis or periodontitis, and other oral opportunistic infections increase the risk of HIV acquisition by oral-genital contacts. Based on the data released by WHO, Sub-Saharan Africa is the most affected region, with approximately 24.7 million people living with HIV. Almost 5 million people are HIV infected in South-East Asia. Other retrovirus related human diseases are human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and human T-lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-II). About 2 to 5 percent of HTLV1 infected patients develops ATLL (Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma). Africa and East and Central Asia are probably the largest endemic area for HTLV-1. HTLV1 decreases saliva production resulting in dental infections. The discussion implies on the impact of retroviral diseases on oral diseases.

Shittu Rasaq Olatunji

Kwara State Specialist Hospital,Nigeria

Title: Suicidal ideation among depressed people living with HIV/AIDS in Nigeria, West Africa

Time : 11:40 - 12:00

Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Shittu Rasaq Olatunji attended the University of Ilorin, Nigeria for his First Degree, where he bagged Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS). He later proceeded to the Post-Graduate School of the same Institution for his Master Degree in Public Health (MPH). He is a Fellow of the West African College of Physician (FWACP), Family Medicine. He is currently the Head of Department of Family Medicine, Accident and Emergency and Lentiviral Clinics of Kwara State Specialist Hospital, Sobi, Ilorin, Nigeria. He is also the Chief Medical Director of Oorelope Hospital (Consultant Specialist Clinics) at Apata Yakuba, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.

Abstract:

Transient suicide thoughts are common to some people throughout the course of HIV disease and often do not indicate significant risk of suicide. However, persistent suicidal thoughts with associated feelings of hopelessness and intent to die are very serious and must be assessed promptly and carefully. The aim of this study, therefore, was to examine the relationship between depression, hopelessness, psychosocial stressors and suicidal ideation in PLWHAs. This was a hospital based, cross sectional, descriptive study, of one hundred and seventy depressed adult HIV/AIDS patients of Kwara State Specialist Hospital, Ilorin. Depression and suicidal assessment were evaluated using the PHQ-9 scale. A score of >9 or any affirmative response to question 9 of the PHQ-9 scale necessitated suicidal risk assessment. The social determinant questionnaire was used to evaluate social cohesion and negative life events. The prevalence of depression among the HIV/AID patient was 56.7%. Twenty nine (17.1%) were hopeless, twenty eight (16.5%) had at one time or the other thought of taking their lives, six (3.5%) had plan to take their lives. There was strong statistical association between depression, hopelessness (p-value = 0.000) thought of taking life (p-value = 0.000) and plan to take their lives (p-value = 0.030). The significant correlations between hopelessness, depression and suicidal ideation are important markers that should alert clinicians to underlying suicide risk in HIV-positive patients. In addition, low social cohesion and stressful life events were found to be risk factors for depression and suicide. Clinicians should routinely enquire about suicidality in PLWHAs to assist early diagnosis and intervention.

Speaker
Biography:

Maduike , C. O. Ezeibe is a Nigerian. He is a professor of Veterinary medicine in the Department of Veterinary Medicine, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike-Nigeria and a graduate of University of Nigeria, Nsukka from where he obtained Doctor of Veterinary Medicine Degree(DVM), M.Sc and Ph.D . He is also a fellow of College of Veterinary Surgeons, Nigeria (FCVSN). Prof Ezeibe has won many academic prizes, including: best student in Veterinary microbiology, pathology, public health and jurisprudence and in Veterinary clinics. In 2011 he won Nigerian government`s presidential standing committee award, for invention of Medicinal synthetic Aluminum – magnesium silicate (Nanoparticles)- a broad-spectrum antiviral medicine which has proved effective against Avian influenza virus, Measles virus, Newcastle disease virus, Peste des petits ruminants virus, Infectious bursal disease virus, Egg drop syndrome 76 virus, Avian pox virus and Canine parvovirus. For virology 2015, Professor Ezeibe shall discuss: Clinical trial of antiretroviral effects of the Medicinal synthetic Aluminum – magnesium silicate (Nanoparticles).

Abstract:

Molecules of Aluminum-magnesium silicate (AMS) are made of platelets with negative electrical charges on their surfaces and positive charges on their edges while every virus has either net positive electrical charges or net negative electrical charges. HIV is positively charged. AMS is safe for use as a medicine . Its negative and positive electrically charged ends make it a broad-spectrum antiviral agent, because, it uses surfaces of its molecular platelets to inhibit positively charged viruses and uses the edges to inhibit negatively charged viruses. When significant percentage of viral infections are inhibited by AMS, immunity completes termination of the infections . Also, platelets of AMS molecules are Nanoparticles. Ultra small size of the platelets makes it possible for them to pass physiological barriers. So, AMS-Nanoparticles reach viruses in every organ. Affinity of Nanoparticles for abnormal (infected and cancer) cells makes AMS able to adsorb onto and destroy HIV-infected cells. That means that even HIV “hidden in cells” are exposed and adsorbed out . Mopping out HIV from blood and the organs means that millions of new viral particles, released from infected cells are prevented from establishing new foci of the infection. Thus, acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS) stage is prevented. Preventing AIDS gives immune responses advantage over the infection. Nigeria does not have AMS, as a natural resource, but there is abundance of Aluminum silicate and Magnesium silicate in the country. These two minerals which are also safe medicines, were reacted to get a purer form of AMS . Dextrose monohydrate was incorporated in the synthetic AMS , to carry its molecules across mucous membranes of gastro-intestinal tracts, into blood, which carries them to all organs and tissues. In vitro, the medicinal synthetic AMS (MSAMS) has inhibited viruses of six families, including Retroviridae,. It has also been used to cure animals challenged with different viruses . The MSAMS was therefore, used for trial-treatment of HIV/AIDS patients. Plasma samples from the volunteers were tested for viral loads before the treatment and then, repeatedly, during the clinical trial. For four weeks, they were treated with: the MSAMS (50 mg/kg) , MSAMS-stabilized Ampicillin trihydrate (7.5 mg/kg) and immune stimulants. After the first 4 weeks, the treatment was reduced to 50 mg/kg (MSAMS) and immune stimulants. This regime continued till four weeks after each patient`s viral load dropped bellow 50/ml. Mean viral load of the patients increased (P=0.006) from 498.50±33.37 to 1,072.50±184.55 after 3.75±2.06 weeks of the treatment, suggesting that it exposed “HIV hidden in cells”. Then it reduced to 407.33±297.27(P=0.04) when duration of the treatment increased to 6.67±2.31 weeks. Prolonging the medication for 10.40±6.10 weeks, led to 98.61% reduction of the viral load, from 19,500.00±29,580.00 to 270.80±412.80 (P=0.004). Two of the patients had their viral loads reduced to 40/ml and 44/ml, respectively (bellow 50/ml). They are still healthy, ten and sixteen months after the treatment. What remains is to confirm their HIV status by an antigen test, instead of testing for antibodies, because, viral antibodies can remain in blood, long after termination of infections.

Speaker
Biography:

Dr Linus Ndegwa, Public health specialist (Infection Control, PhD (epidemiology), MPHE, clinician with 20 years of clinical experience and training healthcare personnel. Founder and leader of infection prevention Network Kenya (IPNET-K) and Vice-Chair of Global Antibiotic resistance program(GARP).Been speaker in several international meetings including, the African network for influenza surveillance and epidemiology, ID week 2015, co-organized by SHEA, CDC, APIC and IDSA, 10th Anniversary of the Needlestick Safety and prevention Act conference, 1st Indian National conference on infections, antibiotic therapy & hospital epidemiology just to mention a few. A board member of Infection Control African Network (ICAN), a member of external affairs, SHEA committee, and an International Ambassador for SHEA. Currently leading Point-of-care evaluation of the BD Veritor™ Rapid Diagnostic Test for Influenza in Kenya and the national surveillance on healthcare associated infections. He has published more than 25 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of repute.

Abstract:

Background: Although health care associated infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, the epidemiology and etiology of respiratory health care associated infections (rHAIs) have not been documented in Kenya. In 2010, the Ministry of Health, Kenya Medical Research Institute, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated surveillance for rHAIs at 3 hospitals. Methods: At each hospital, we surveyed intensive care units (ICUs), pediatric wards, and medical wards to identify patients with rHAIs, defined as any hospital-onset (_3 days after admission) fever (_38_C) or hypothermia (<35_C) with concurrent signs or symptoms of acute respiratory infection. Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal specimens were collected from these patients and tested by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for influenza and 7 other viruses. Results: From April 2010-September 2012, of the 379 rHAI cases, 60.7% were men and 57.3% were children <18 years old. The overall incidence of rHAIs was 9.2 per 10,000 patient days, with the highest incidence in the ICUs. The most common viruses identified among specimens Tested were adenovirus (n =19, 18.5%), RSV (n = 17, 16.5%), parainfluenza virus type 3 (n = 16, 15.3%), and influenza virus A (n= 9, 8.7%).Of all specimens analyzed, 45.7% had at least 1 respiratory virus detected; 92.2% of all positive viral specimens were identified in patients <18 years old. Conclusion: We identified rHAIs in all ward types under surveillance in Kenyan hospitals. Viruses may have a substantial role in these infections, particularly among pediatric populations

Speaker
Biography:

Grace Pennap is a Microbiology Lecturer with Nasarawa State University Keffi. Her field of interest is Viral Epidemiology where she has 39 peer reviewed publications in reputed Scientific Journals and has contributed a chapter each in two text books.

Abstract:

Infection with Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C virus are significant emerging public health problems in Nigeria. This study determined the prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus infections among apparently healthy people. Two hundred blood samples were screened for HBV and HCV using a rapid chromatographic immunoassay test kit. Of these, 10.5% were reactive for HBsAg, 20.5% for HCV and 1.5% had a co-infection. The gender specific prevalence rates of 9.0% and 12.5% were recorded among the females and males for HBV respectively, while for HCV, the prevalence of 20.7% was recorded among females and 20.2% among males. Co-infection was 2.2% and 0.9% for males and females respectively (P > 0.05). The highest prevalence of HBV (12.9%) was recorded among participants aged 16-30years while it was least (4.3%) among those aged 1-15 years. The highest prevalence of HCV (25.8%) was among those aged 16-30 years and least (8.7%) among those aged 1-15 years. There was no statistically significant relationship between viral infection and age, gender, marital status, history of blood transfusion, educational level, occupation and scarification marks (P > 0.05). The high prevalence rates is a cause for alarm especially as it is among apparently healthy people. Patients should be screened at the point of care as a prelude to treatment and likewise prospective blood donors .

Speaker
Biography:

Dominic Targema Abaver has completed his Ph.D.at the age of 40 years from University of Abuja in parasitology; He is chief superintendent of Immigration Nigerian Immigration service, a paramilitary organization in the ministry of interior. He has published number of papers on HIV/AIDS, Immunology and parasitology in reputed journals, such as African Health Science, Pakistani Journal of Medical sciences, African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance (AJPHERD). He is a member of Nigerian society of parasitology and a fellow, Institute of Cooperate Administration. Currently, D.T. Abaver is a Contract Researcher at Walter Sisulu University, Eastern Cape, South Africa. His research interest include Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS and other Opportunistic Infections; Preventive measures/techniques of HIV/AIDS; gender, age and sexual orientation as determinants for the impact of HIV/AIDS

Abstract:

The issue of homosexuality attracts global debate, given that this constitutes risk factor for sexually transmitted diseases. An exploration of socio-cultural, religious and sexual activities of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex sector would inform future Human Immunodeficiency Virus programming. A cross-sectional study was conducted in all the five campuses of Walter Sisulu. Data was collected with the aid of questionnaire and interviews. A total of 721 participants completed the questionnaire. Most (71.1%) students are aware of homosexuals in the community, and 79.4% believe having sex with same gender is abnormal and unnatural. Most (90.7%) participants are straight/heterosexuals, while 2.1% are bisexual, 0.3% each identified themselves as gay and lesbians respectively. Homosexuality as a risk factor for transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus scored 55%. While 22.4% confirmed that their religion encourages them to accept people with sexual preference, 47.2% observed that their religion sees homosexuality as unnatural and wrong. Over seventy two percent (72.4%) confirmed that their culture does not accept same sex relationships. Homosexuality by students in WSU community exists. Generally, the act and behaviour of these students are not accepted by the community. Therefore, there is need for the University community to include in the school curriculum and design programmes that will enlighten members of the community concerning the concept and practice of homosexuality

Chaste Karangwa

Rwanda Biomedical Center/HIV Division, Rwanda

Title: Modeling implementation of Early Infant Male Circumcision in Rwanda: Lessons learnt

Time : 14:00 - 14:20

Speaker
Biography:

KARANGWA Chaste, Msc candidate, is working with Rwanda Biomedical Centre as HIV biomedical prevention specialist within prevention unit, he is in charge of coordinating all biomedical prevention activities (male circumcision and prevention with positive) and also experienced in HIV data management (demand and use). He has published 2 papers in HIV international conferences. He is Independent mind and ability thinks logically and critically

Abstract:

Background Medical male circumcision (MMC) has been proven to reduce the risk of HIV infection in men. Rwanda does not traditionally circumcise, after sensitization campaigns through community people were interested in MMC, to meet this demand adult MMC is provided since 2008, in addition Rwanda is modeling Newborn male circumcision (performed between births to 2 months) as long term strategy. Methodology A steering committee was established to oversee implementation and to review progress regularly. Steps in establishing the services followed the classical program cycle of assessment, planning, implementation and monitoring. Medical Staff from maternity and surgical department were trained on Mogen device use for 3 days, sites were selected, supplies were procured, and clients were sensitized and enrolled. Data and adverse events was collected routinely and reviewed for uptake improvement. Results A total of 85 circumcisions were performed, 6% of these consented at the ANC, 35% after delivery and 59 % during routine child welfare clinic visits. The average birth weight was 3.3 kilos and age was 41 days. Majority (n/N) did not experience any adverse events (AE), five experienced AE such as bleeding and 8 had incomplete removal of the foreskin. Lessons learned and next steps Integration of newborn male circumcision in MNCH setting is feasible. Mogen clamp is simple to use. Selection of health care workers with surgical experience, extended and adequate training using infant penis models and supervision on the job are critical to minimize AE and to achieve better outcome of Newborn male circumcision procedures.

  • Regulatory and Economical Aspects in Virology
Speaker

Chair

Ting-Chao Chou

PD Science LLC, USA

Speaker

Co-Chair

Mohammad Intakhab Alam

Zirve University,Turkey

Session Introduction

Todd E. Bell

Texas Tech University Health Science Center, Amarillo,USA

Title: Personal Protective Equipment for Healthcare Workers: “Dressing in the Dark

Time : 14:20 - 14:40

Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Bell completed medical school at the University of Arkansas and a combined internal medicine/pediatrics residency program at Duke University. Since moving to Texas Tech, he has served as the Infection Prevention Medical Director for Northwest Texas Hospital and director of the West Texas Influenza Center. He works closely with state and local public health agencies. He is the regional director of the Center for Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease and regional chairman of the department of Pediatrics in Amarillo. He works with an international collaboration in influenza research, as well as pursuing research interests in epidemiology and dysautonomia.

Abstract:

Recent infectious disease outbreaks have highlighted the limitations of evidenced based Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). PPE testing has historically been done by individual component, rather than as a bundle for contact isolation. Unfortunately, testing individual components of PPE may not necessarily equate to protection of healthcare workers when using a PPE bundle. The purpose of this discussion is to review the available literature for viral outbreak scenario PPE, examples of national and international PPE protocols for some outbreaks, and some unpublished data related to PPE selection and training. Strategies for performing “grass-roots” bundle testing by organizations employing PPE will be discussed. New technologies and innovations relating to PPE will be reviewed.

  • Recent Advances in Drug Discovery

Session Introduction

Oleg P. Zhirnov

D.I.Ivanovsky Institute of Virology,Russia

Title: Metered dose inhaler containing aprotinin, a protease inhibitor, as a drug against influenza

Time : 14:40 - 15:00

Speaker
Biography:

Oleg Zhirnov graduated 1’st Moscow Medical Institute and defended PHD theses and Degree of Doctor of science at the D.I.Ivanovsky Institute of Virology (Moscow, Russia). Currently, he is professor and a head of the laboratory of viral pathogenesis at the D.I.Ivanovsky Institute of Virology (Moscow, Russia). Awards: Stipendium of European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO), Moscow Mayer’s Award for the development of a new method of Influenza therapy. Grants: German Research Foundation (DFG), NATO Research Grant, Scholarship of Howard Hughes Medical Institute (USA), Grants of Russian Foundation of Basic Research (Russia). Research interests: molecular biology of viruses, molecular pathways of cell death (apoptosis; autophagy), antivirals and viral pathogenesis, viral vaccines design and design of oncolytic viruses.

Abstract:

Influenza virus is activated by host respiratory proteases to maintain infection in respiratory epithelium and pathogenesis of disease. Inhalations of aprotinin, a natural proptease inhibitor, were found to provide therapeutic effect in influenza (for review see Zhirnov et al., Antiviral. Res. 92(1): 27-36 2011). Antiviral efficacy of inhalations of aprotinin aerosol generated by meter dose manual inhaler (MDI) were studied in influenza patients. Clinical trials were performed during outbreak in Moscow region caused with pandemic Influenza H1N1pdm09 virus. Propellant type MDI (AerusTM, Russia) containing aprotinin as an active substance was used. Patients inhaled nasally 2 aerosol doses of aprotinin (160 Kallikrein-inhibiting Units (KIU)) each 2 hours for 5 days. In comparison group, patients were treated with ingavirinTM (a synthetic peptidoamine with unknown antiviral target), 90 mg per day for 5 days. On day 2 after treatment virus loads in nasal-pharyngeal washes were determined by real time PCR. Because amounts of host cells in nasopharyngeal washes varied from patient to patient, amounts of viral RNA were normalized to host ribosomal 18S RNA determined by real time PCR with human ribosome specific primers. About 10 fold decrease of virus load in aprotinin patients were determined in comparison to ingavirin patients. Duration of clinical symptoms, such as headache, sore throat, cough, sore thorax, rhinorrhea, weakness, fever, was 1-2 days shorter in aprotinin then in ingavirin group. About 35 patients were observed and no side effects were documented in aprotinin-treated patients. Aprotinin MDI can be recommended as a drug of choice against Influenza caused by different viruses because phenomenon of virus activation by host proteases is a major pathogenesis mechanism in all influenza viruses.

Marcin Sieńczyk

Wroclaw University of Technology,Poland

Title: Targeting viral serine proteases with phosphonic inhibitors

Time : 15:00 - 15:20

Speaker
Biography:

Marcin Sieńczyk graduated from the Molecular Biotechnology and Biocatalysis program in 2002 at Wroclaw University of Technology, four years later he obtained his PhD in Medicinal Chemistry. In 2015 he was awarded habilitation (DSc) in Biotechnology. He currently holds the position of assistant professor at Wroclaw University of Technology, Division of Medicinal Chemistry and Microbiology. His research is focused on the development of low molecular weight compounds designed to target proteases involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases including cancer, bacterial and viral infections. Work in his laboratory also generates antibodies to be used in the development of new diagnostic assays for human diseases. He is a co-author of more than 40 papers, 14 patents and more than 25 pending patent applications.

Abstract:

For several viral species the successful and complete life cycle, which leads to the production of new virons, requires the activity of specific, viral genome-coded serine protease. The primary function of this protease is the cleavage of viral polyprotein releasing structural and non-structural viral proteins essential for virus replication and the assembly of new virus particles [ ]. We have focused our attention on two viruses belonging to Flaviviridae family – hepatitis C virus (HCV) and West Nile virus (WNV). HCV is a small, enveloped, positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus which can cause acute or chronic infection. It has been estimated that 130–150 million people live with chronic hepatitis C infection worldwide. Unfortunately no effective vaccine for HCV is available. One of the most promising molecular targets for anti-HCV therapy is a protease, which is a part of the bifunctional nonstructural protein 3 (NS3/4A). All of already approved for the treatment of HCV infection compounds display a reversible-type of inhibition. Nevertheless, the appearance of the inhibitor-resistant mutant strains limits the efficiency of the overall treatment. WNV was isolated from human in 1937 in the West Nile district of Uganda. In 1997 highly virulent strain appeared in Israel and caused death of various bird species. In 1999 a pathogenic WNV strain was brought to New York leading to a dramatic outbreak which started to spread throughout Americas. Although the lifecycle of WNV involves the transmission of virus between birds and mosquitoes, various mammalian species, including human and horses, can be infected causing a fatal neurological disease. Currently no vaccine nor effective treatment are available. A viral serine protease (NS2B/NS3) has been considered as an attractive target for the development of novel anti-WNV agents since its inactivation blocks the replication of the virus. Here we report the development of α-aminoalkylphosphonate diaryl esters as well as their peptidyl derivatives as potent, active site-directed and irreversible inhibitors of HCV NS3/4A and WNV NS2B/NS3 proteases. One of the advantages of α-aminophosphonic inhibitors is their specificity of action toward serine proteases and lack of reactivity with cysteine, aspartyl and metalloproteinases [ ]. Moreover, even for two serine proteases of similar substrate recognition profile, a selective and potent phosphonic inhibitor may be developed. Considering high stability in human plasma, irreversible mechanism of action and low toxicity α-aminoalkylphosphonates represent an interesting class of inhibitors for novel antiviral agents development.

  • Current Focus in Virology Research
Speaker
Biography:

Filippo de Nicolellis graduated at Rome University “La Sapienza” in 1986, where he specialized in Infectious Diseases in 1990. From 1995 to 2000, he worked as a Family Doctor in Doberdò del Lago/Doberdob (Gorizia) and since 2000 in Fiumicello, Udine, in Friuli Venezia Giulia, in the north-east of Italy. Since 2000, he has also been the President of the medical association “Croce Medica”, which deals with the organization of Health Services and Permanent Training and particularly with Primary Health Care and Emergency.

Abstract:

I will introduce a three-year project focused on developing e-communication and other tools in a rural area of Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy. The Medical Association “Croce Medica” is making all efforts in Primary Health Care to increase the rate of people vaccinated against influenza. The association is promoting the use of posters in family doctor’s offices as well as of e-mails to communicate the patients’ dates and procedures for the vaccination against influenza. Furthermore the association e-mails are dispatched by its registered doctors about influenza as well as a request for information about the illness seasonal evolution in the various areas of Friuli Venezia Giulia. As a matter of fact, there has been an increase in the percentage of vaccinated people in the investigated area in the last year, compared to the average data in the territory of Bassa Friulana. I believe all efforts aiming at improving the communication with patients and explaining how to obtain the vaccination against influenza are useful in any case, and they have probably been crucial to achieve a better result than the ASS 5 average one.

Speaker
Biography:

Pedro Brandão dos Santos Pedrosa has a BSc in Microbiology and Immunology, and is a specialist in Biosafety by FIOCRUZ (IPEC). He has completed his first MSc in Immunology from USP (São Paulo State University). His virology experience comprises work with Dengue viruses, Hantaviruses, Mayaro virus, and some degree of training in BSL3 operation and scientific initial work in the Friedrich Loeffler Institut (FLI – INNT). He has 1 article published, 2 articles about to be published and several works presented in congresses on Virology.

Abstract:

The previous theory of the epidemiological transition, that was prevailing in great part of the developed world, has been challenged not only by the worst EHF (caused by EBOV) epidemic ever, which poses a real threat of secondary cases far from Western Africa, but also the endemic HFRS in some regions of Europe (ie. Finland and Germany), and the spreading of H9N2 Influenza type A among humans, WNV in North America, among other viral pathogens. The aim of this talk is not only to provide a conceptual framework of biosafety in face of a now logistically growing number of known viruses, but also to report a number of scientific works of clear relevance concerning the biosafety in the clinical virology and respective research, and finally to propose a multi-center project of research of biosafety in virological research.