Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 5th World Congress on Virology Atlanta, USA.

Submit your Abstract
or e-mail to

[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]

Day 1 :

Keynote Forum

Ting-Chao Chou

Founder and President, PD Science, LLC USA

Keynote: Stories Behind The Cocktail and Synergism

Time : 09:00-09:45

OMICS International Virology-2015 International Conference Keynote Speaker Ting-Chao Chou photo
Biography:

Ting-Chao Chou (born in Taiwan), received M.S in pharmacology, National Taiwan University, Ph.D. in Pharmacology from Yale University in 1970, and postdoctoral fellowship from Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Member of Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) and Professor of Pharmacology at Cornell University Graduate School of Medical Sciences. He is Honorary Professor at Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (1993-) and Visiting Professor at five universities. He was Director of Preclinical Pharmacology Core at MSKCC where he retired on June 1st, 2013. Dr. Chou published >300 articles, have been cited 22,589 times in 850 different bio-medical journals, with h-index: 65, based on Google Scholar Citations. He is inventor/co-inventor of 38 U.S. Patents. Dr. Chou is the Founder of PD Science, LLC., USA.

Abstract:

The therapy of AIDS and cancer rarely used single drugs, but rather have used two or more drug combinations. Drug combination may provide benefits of synergistic therapeutic effect, as well as reduced toxicity, minimized or delayed development of drug resistance, or allowed attacking multiple receptor or etiological targets. The important basic requirments for these aims are: i) Definition of synergism and its quantitative determination using the combination Index (CI<1); ii) Simple and efficient experiment design using small number of data points and small number patients in phase-I clinical trial design using the mass-action law based "minimum of two-data point theory" for dose and effect dynamics ; iii) The theoretical basis for the Combination Index for 3 or more drugs combinations using the "Polygonogram". The original CI equation, theory, algorithm, and computerized simulation of synergism and antagonisn were presented in Chou TC & Talalay. Adv. Enz. Regul 22:27-55, 1984, cited 4,357 times in 850 different journals); in Chou TC. Pharmacol Rev 58:621-681, 2006 (cited 1,298 times in 342 journals); and in Chou TC. Integrative Biol. 3:548-559, 2011 (featured on the front-cover of the May issue, published by RSC Cambridge, UK). Questions to be asked are: How to assess combo synergy quantitatively for 2 or more drugs?; Are the Combos on the market the best in synergy?; Do peer reviewers, journal editors and governmental regulatory agencies really understand "What is synergy?. These issues will be discussed and the answers will be provided.

OMICS International Virology-2015 International Conference Keynote Speaker Shahana Choudhury photo
Biography:

I have a background in Pediatrics and Pediatric Infectious Diseases, including Board Certification and recertification, as well as expertise in evaluating immunities to vaccine preventable infections in HIV-infected and HIV-exposed children. My research in this area was initiated as a fellow at Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, where I evaluated the immunogenicity to the hepatitis B vaccine in HIV-infected children. Subsequently, I was able to successfully develop and conduct an RC1 research project evaluating serotype specific antibodies to S pneumoniae in US-born versus Hispanic pregnant women and cord blood samples of their infants. This resulted in a publication in the May-June 2012 issue of JNMA.

Abstract:

Immunity to varicella and measles have not been compared in HIV seropositive and rnseronegative pregnant women and their infants. Antibody levels to varicella and measles were rnevaluated in 14 HIV seropositive and 34 seronegative pregnant women, 14 HIV exposed and 26 rnun-exposed cord bloods, and followed-up prospectively in 23 HIV exposed and unexposed infants rnaround 3- 7 months of age by ELISA (99 samples) and by EIA (13 samples) for measles and byrnimmunofluorescence (IFA) for varicella. Correlates of immunity were defined as antibody levels rnmeasles (> 1.09 OD ratio or EIA) and >1:8 IFA for varicella. Antibody levels were correlated with rnT cell counts in HIV seropositive mothers. Mean (range) ages of women at time of serologic rntests were 27 (18-40), and 25 (15-41) years for HIV and control groups, respectively. Antibody rnlevels to measles were significantly (P= 0.04) lower in cord bloods of HIV exposed infants rncompared to the controls. T cell counts were lower in HIV seropositive women non-immune rn(268/mm3) to measles compared to those immune (618/mm3), but insignificantly (P= 0.07).rnImmunity to measles and varicella as recognized by antibody levels declined significantly in rnboth HIV exposed and unexposed infants by 3- 7 months of age.rn

  • General Virology and Basic Science
Speaker

Chair

Sita Awasthi

University of Pennsylvania,USA

Speaker

Co-Chair

Hua Zhu

Rutgers University,USA

Speaker
Biography:

Michael W. Washabaugh is acting as a Senior Director at MedImmune.His expertise include Experience includes: product immunogenicity, vaccine & therapeutic protein bioprocess, analytical & formulation development (esp. understanding regulatory expectations for filing for approval & process/facility changes), technology transfer to manufacturing, development & execution of automated in-process monitoring assays to support bioprocess & formulation development, structure-function relationships, surrogate markers & bioanalytical development, characterization of antigen-adjuvant interactions, GLP/GMP assays & clinical assays.

Abstract:

Viral diseases offer a major challenge to vaccine development because of the complex nature of virus structures and the large size of the virus particle needed to generate an effective immune response. Classical approaches to develop antiviral vaccines have required the use of attenuated (or inactivated) live viruses produced in cell culture. Although this approach has been widely successful and is still in practice, not all viruses are amenable to replication in cell culture, particularly at commercial scale. In appropriate expression systems, recombinant viral proteins of modest size (24 kDa) have been produced that self-assemble into icosahedral virus-like particles (VLPs) whose surface is immunochemically comparable to that of the actual virus – this has been a major success story in contemporary vaccines. This talk reviews the scientific challenges in the production and characterization of VLP vaccines, and the data necessary to provide assurance of comparability for manufacturing changes.

Speaker
Biography:

Farshad Guirakhoo, a virologist by training, was named one of the 50 Most Influential People in Vaccines in Vaccine Nation’s 2014 list. His most recent assignment was CTO at Vaxess Technologies. Prior to this, he served as CSO at Hookipa Biotech and Executive Director of External R&D at Sanofi Pasteur. Before joining Sanofi Pasteur in 2007, he was with Acambis for 15 years as Head of Research and co-invented the ChimeriVax-technology platform in association with St. Louis University. This platform has successfully been applied in the development of vaccines such as IMOJEV™, PreVenile™, Dengvaxia™, and WN human vaccine. He has broad experience in the application of gene expression technologies and molecular virology for the construction and production of recombinant proteins, human antibodies, and attenuated viral vectored vaccines for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. He is the author of over 80 peer-reviewed publications and holder of multiple patents.

Abstract:

Viral infections account for 15 million deaths per year, one-third of all mortalities worldwide. The most effective medical approach to combat viral diseases and reduce deaths is vaccinations, which have less adverse side effects than drugs while inducing longer lasting protection from reinfection. Live attenuated, inactivated, or subunit vaccine approaches have been successfully utilized to combat mortalities caused by infectious diseases such as yellow fever, varicella, measles, mumps, rubella, influenza, smallpox, polio, rabies, hepatitis A and B, and human papillomavirus. Viruses themselves have also been used as vectors (either replication competent or replication deficient) for development of vaccines against both infectious and non-infectious diseases. The most important factor in the construction of effective viral vectors is finding the right balance between safety and immunogenicity. Although live viral vaccine vectors are highly efficacious, there is also a greater potential risk involved with their broader usage because they are replication-competent. Vaccines based on replication-incompetent viruses are perceived to be safer but there is not yet any vaccine on the market for human use. In this talk, characteristics of both replication-deficient and replication-competent viral vectors and barriers for their developments will be discussed. The talk will specifically focus on a few vector examples that have either generated marketed products or have successfully completed their phase 3 efficacy trials.

Nada M Melhem

American University of Beirut, Lebanon

Title: Characterization of Norovirus in Lebanon among hospitalized children less than 5 years old

Time : 11:55 - 12:15

Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Nada Melhem joined the American University of Beirut (AUB) in 2009 after earning her doctoral and postdoctoral training at the University of Pittsburgh, Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology. She is an assistant professor of infectious diseases and microbiology at the Faculty of Health Sciences (FHS), an associate at the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics and a member of the Center for Infectious Diseases Research, Faculty of Medicine at AUB. Dr. Melhem is a virologist and immunologist representing FHS on the National Committee for Communicable Diseases and the Polio National Containment Committee, both hosted at the Ministry of Public Health. Dr. Melhem conducts international and national collaborative research on potential therapeutic vaccine models targeting HIV- 1 and HIV drug resistance in Lebanon, respectively. She has designed and implemented projects on viral hepatitis as well as HIV and viral hepatitis co-infections among high-risk groups. Dr. Melhem has published on HIV and viral hepatitis and is currently assessing the prevalence of Norovirus among hospitalized children less than 5 in Lebanon and the genotypic characterization of the virus.

Abstract:

Norovirus (NoV) is responsible for at least 50% of all gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. NoVs are classified into six different genogroups (GGI- GGVI) based on the viral capsid protein with NoV genogroup II genotype 4 (GGII.4) being the predominant strain causing human diseases. To our knowledge, no data exist on the burden of NoV in Lebanon among hospitalized children less than 5 years old. Written informed consents were obtained from the legal guardians of hospitalized children and consequently stool samples and medical data were collected. A standardized questionnaire including demographic, epidemiologic and clinical observations was used at the time of hospitalization of children presenting with diarrhea. A total of 739 eligible stool samples were collected from six major hospitals in Lebanon. Viral RNA extraction was performed followed by reverse transcription using genogroup-specific primers for GI and GII genotypes Nucleotide sequencing of NoV positive samples was performedusing the PCR primers. Multiple sequence alignments were carried out and phylogenetic trees were constructed using the MEGA 6 software. A total of 83 norovirus cases (11.2%) were detected over the course of 2 years. The mean age of these cases was 16.2±9.5 months. The incidence of NoV infection was the highest during the summer season (June-August) of each year. The majority of the NoV cases were NoV genogroup GII (n=78) with a total incidence rate of 10.6% while 5 samples tested positive for NoV genogroup GI with a total incidence rate of 0.7%. Most samples showed positive symptoms of diarrhea (95.1%) followed bydehydration (89.0%), vomiting (76.8%) and fever (67.1%). The majority of the isolated cases were caused by GII.4a and GII.4b (67%) with isolated cases of GII.1, GII.3, GII.6, GII.7, GII.9, GII.13 and GII.21. Similarly, GI.3 and GI.4 were detected. Our results are similar to those detected in the developed countries. We are in the process of designing seroprevalence data to assess the level of protection following infection with NoV.

Rashmi Sharma

SPC GCA ,MDSU,Ajmer,India

Title: Viral Diseases of Ajmer Rajasthan India

Time : 12:15 - 12:35

Speaker
Biography:

She did her PhD on the Topic "Effects of certain substances antagonizing the action of vitamin A during limb and tail regeneration in anuran amphibians. She has 20 years of teaching experience and 20 years of research experience. She has attended more than 57 conferences both national and international. Did 2 refresher courses and 1 orientation course. She has published papers in national and international journals. Supervised 7 Dissertations and presently supervising 4 PhD studentshttp://virology.omicsgroup.com/

Abstract:

Ajmer is located in the center of Rajasthan (India) between 250 38 and 260 58 North Latitude and 730 54 and 750 22 East Longitude covering a geographical area of about 8481sqkm hemmed in all sides by Aravalli hills. Viral diseases occur when an organism’s body is invaded by pathogenic viruses and infectious viral particles (virions) enter susceptible cells. The viral diseases which commonly occur in Ajmer are: 1) Influenza (family Orthomyxoviridae), occur by droplet contact. Treatment is by Amantadine, rimantadine, zanamivir, oseltamivir. Prevention is by hand washing, covering the mouth while coughing and sneezing and avoiding close contact. 2) AIDS (Retriviridae) transmission is by sexual contact, blood, breast milk. Treatment is by HAART and prevention by avoiding shared needles, safe sex. Diagnosis is by antibody detection, p24 and nucleic acids. 3) Measles (Paramyxo viridae) transmission by droplet contact, treatment none, prevention by vaccines and avoiding contact, diagnosis is by antibody detection. 4) Mumps (Family Paramyxo viridae) transmission is by droplet contact and treatment none; prevention is vaccine and avoiding close contact. 5) Chicken pox (family Herpes viridae), transmission is by direct contact, treatment by zoster and varicella (acyclovir) and diagnosis by cell culture. 6) Gastroenteritis (Adeni viridae) transmission by droplet contact, fecal and oral; treatment none, prevention is by vaccine diagnosis ELISA. 7) Pneumonia (Paramyxo viridae) Transmission by droplet contact, treatment none, prevention by vaccine, diagnosis is by antibody detection.

  • Clinical and Neuro Virology

Session Introduction

Hua Zhu

Rutgers University ,USA

Title: Role of ORF 7 in Varicella Zoster Virus Tissue Tropism and Potential for Novel Vaccine

Time : 12:35 - 12:55

Speaker
Biography:

Hua Zhu is an Associate Professor of Department of Microbiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University. He has received a Ph.D. from the Columbia University, New York NY in 1993. He has completed his postdoctoral training in herpesviruses in Princeton University, NJ in 1998. He is serving as an editorial board member of the Journal of antivirals and antiretrovirals and and reviewer of 6 journals. He published over 60 research articles, reviews and book chapters.

Abstract:

After the primary infection, varicella zoster virus (VZV) remains latent in sensory ganglia, and reactivates upon weakening of the immune system, erupting from sensory neurons and infecting surrounding skin tissue. The factors involved in neuronal invasion and establishment of latency are still elusive. In our previous work, we employed a VZV BAC system in order to characterize a comprehensive library of VZV single ORF deletion mutants. We reported 18 ORFs to be fully dispensable in melanoma cells, which we postulated to encode elements responsible for specific tissue tropism. We now demonstrate that screening of these 18 dispensable gene mutants in differentiated neurons led to the identification of ORF7 as a neurotropic factor. This finding adds to our previous report that ORF7 is also a skin tropic factor. ORF7 is a virion component localized to the Golgi compartment in infected cells, whose deletion causes loss of polykaryon formation in vitro and severely impairs viral spread in human nervous tissue ex vivo. Interactions between ORF7 and other virion proteins are under investigation. Furthermore, ORF7 is required for VZV replication in xenografts of human skin and dorsal root ganglia in a SCID-hu mouse model. Here we show that an ORF7 deletion virus is able to infect dendritic cells, which in turn can infect T cells. This unique set of characteristics lends an ORF7 deletion mutant the potential to become an excellent VZV vaccine candidate. This neuroattenuated vaccine would cause neither the primary chickenpox nor the secondary herpes zoster diseases. Finally, given that ORF7 is essential for VZV initial infection of neurons and replication therein, it may also be a critical trigger of reactivation from latency.

Robin J Green

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Pretoria, South Africa

Title: New Insights into the Bugs in the Airway of HIV-infected Children with Lung Disease

Time : 12:55 - 13:15

Speaker
Biography:

Robin J Green is Director of Paediatric Services and Paediatric Pulmonology, Paediatric Intensive Care and Allergy Services at the Steve Biko Academic Hospital, Pretoria. He is a Full Professor in the Department of Paediatrics and Child Health within the School of Medicine at the University of Pretoria. He holds a PhD and DSc, and is a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians and Past President of the College of Paediatricians of South Africa. He is also Immediate Past Chairman of the Allergy Society of South Africa. The National Research Foundation rates him as an established researcher, in paediatric pulmonology.

Abstract:

Pulmonary diseases and syndromes occur in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and they often differ from children not co-infected by the HI virus.Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) is a common opportunistic LRTI in HIV-infected infants, early in life and presents as acute severe pneumonia. The presence of PCP is known to be commonly associated with Cytomegalovirus co-infection and CMV is often responsible for mortality. Bacterial and viral co-infection occurs but does not impact outcome. The cytokine results suggest that the major cytokine associated with severe hypoxic pneumonia in very young, HIV-infected, infants is IP-10. There is now clear evidence that bronchiolitis is not a common condition in HIV-infected infants. New evidence is emerging that Human Rhinovirus is associated with both bronchiolitis and pneumonia in both HIV-infected and –non-infected children. With regard to the sputum cytokines identified in children with an acute lower respiratory tract infection, IL-13, IL-4, IL-5, TNF-α, IFN-α, IFN-γ, and MIP-1α are significantly lower in HIV-infected cases, whilst IP-10 and MIG are significantly higher in HIV-infected cases.Chronic lung disease, especially bronchiectasis, is often a sequelae in HIV-infected children. H. influenzae and -parainfluenzae are the predominant organisms cultured in children with HIV-related bronchiectasis and now shown to be the dominant microbiome in such individuals. Il-8 is the cytokine which dominates in children with HIV-associated bronchiectasis.

George Adigbli

University College London, UK

Title: tRNA retrograde transport in nuclear import of HIV-1

Time : 13:15 - 13:35

Speaker
Biography:

George Adigbli completed his Bachelor of Sciences degree in Medical Sciences, with Immunology and Cell Pathology, as well as his Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery degrees. He has since completed a Master of Sciences degree at University College London and has been granted a postgraduate scholarship from the University of Oxford to complete a DPhil in Immunology.

Abstract:

Lentiviruses and gammaretroviruses are two subdivisions of retroviruses that exhibit cell cycle independence and dependence respectively in their ability to infect cells. Nuclear import of HIV-1, a process that we lack explicit knowledge of, has been speculated to be mediated by several host and viral factors known as nuclear localisation signals. No such signal currently identified however has been determined essential for nuclear import. Recently it has been found that nuclear import of HIV-1 is mediated by retrograde transport of tRNA. We sought to identify whether there is a relationship between the cell cycle dependence of these retroviral subtypes, the tRNA they incorporate, and nuclear import of HIV-1. To investigate this we studied wild type HIV-1 and MLV and produced two chimeric viruses containing different MLV gag components within a HIV vector. Using these we identified the infectivity of the viruses, extracted and analysed their tRNA and attempted to assay their effect on nuclear import of reverse transcription complexes. We showed that the viruses encoding MLV CA were less able to infect dividing cells than those encoding HIV CA and were also unable to infect non-dividing cells. We also demonstrated quantitative differences between the tRNAs incorporated by the different viruses, most notably the chimera encoding MLV CA. This suggests that MLV CA may somehow affect interaction with or incorporation of tRNAs that mediate HIV-1 nuclear import. We were unable to assimilate the role of such differences in nuclear import however, we have evidence now to suggest that the capsid protein and its interaction with tRNA in some way could hold the key to nuclear import of HIV-1. This creates great prospects for future investigations into the nature of such a relationship and how it may possibly be manipulated in HIV-1 therapy.

Jayaraman Shanmugam

Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth University,India

Title: Arboviral infections in India and South East Asian countries

Time : 15:15 - 15:35

Speaker
Biography:

Dr.Jayaraman Shanmugam,M.Sc.,Ph.D.,M.D.,Ph.,D(Hon.), President of Indian Association of Medical Microbiologists (2014-2015) has worked at Sri Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, (Govt.of India), Trivandrum for 26 years and later in two private medical colleges for 14 years in UAE and India. He has completed 24 research projects, published 118 papers in various journals, received 18 awards and many honors, edited two journals, organized many workshops, symposia, CME, national and international conferences, guided Ph.D students and is an elected Fellow of five societies, including American College of Epidemiology and a senior consultant in Medical Virology/Microbiology in India.

Abstract:

More than 40 human viral agents have emerged in various parts of the world during the past four decades. Most of them are RNA viruses mainly transmitted from animals to humans. Maximum viruses have emerged in the African, Asian and South American continents where enormous species of animals, birds and insects are living with increased possibility of humans coming in close contact with them directly or indirectly. Though more than 550 types of arbo viruses have been described in the world, only around 15 types of them have been reported in India. The Kyasanur Forest Virus in India emerged in 1957 in Karnataka state. In 2005-2006 a major Chikungunya outbreak occurred in South India. The arbovirus emerged lately in India is Congo-Crimean Hemorrhagic Fever virus in 2012 in Gujarat. Around 10 new types of viruses have been detected in South East Asia and Western Pacific. In Australia nearly 40 arbo viruses have been described. Due to the paucity of laboratory facilities many viral diseases go undiagnosed in developing countries from Africa and Asia. Hence the health authorities should initiate appropriate measures to establish high quality laboratories to diagnose viral diseases without delay, including periodic training of the laboratory personnel.

  • Symposium

Session Introduction

Abdelouaheb Benani

Pasteur Institute of Morocco, Morocco

Title: Molecular Epidemiology of HBV and HCV in North Africa

Time : 14:15 - 14:45

Speaker
Biography:

Abdelouaheb Benani is the in-charge of Molecular Biology Laboratory at Pasteur Institute of Morocco which is a national reference laboratory for Hepatitis C Program (Moroccan ministry of health). He is also the elect-President of Arab Society for Virology and Active Member on the Advisory Board, Consultative Meeting on Regional Strategy for Prevention and Control of Viral Hepatitis and Other Epidemics-Prone Blood-Borne Diseases, in 2008 (WHO/EMRO, Cairo, Egypt). He got his Master of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology at Université Libre of Bruxelles (ULB, Belgium) and his PhD in Molecular Microbiology in Fes University (Morocco). He participates in several international and national workshops and congresses. He is also implicated in student’s research for their training, master, and PhD. He published in several journals including Journal of Medical Virology, BMC Public Health, and Virology Journal. He is an active researcher in Molecular Epidemiology of HBV and HCV in general population and high risk groups in Morocco. He organized the 1st International Symposium for Virology in Morocco in 2003 (Marrakech, Morocco) and the First PCR Forum and Molecular Typing at Pasteur Institute of Morocco.

Abstract:

Hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses are major public health problems worldwide and serious cause of liver disease that may silently progress toward cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The HCV epidemic in North Africa falls into an ‘intermediate’ range, characterized by a decreasing East-West gradient, with the average seroprevalence estimated between 1.2% and 1.9%. The HBV epidemic is more rampant, as most countries are either classified as highly or intermediately infected. Egypt harbors the highest HCV prevalence globally, with about 15% of the total population having been infected since the parenteral antischitosomal therapy implemented in the 1920s. HBV is less endemic in Egypt, with prevalences averaging around 4%. Libya borders Egypt yet has a lower endemicity for both HBV and HCV, estimated at 2.2% and 1.3% respectively. Tunisia is intermediate for HBV endemicity, with rates for HBsAg positive patients ranging between 4 to 7%, and an even lower HCV seroprevalence, estimated at 0.4% in the general population. The paucity of data for Algeria results in that the only figure for a national prevalence dates from 2009, and it is estimated that 2.5% of the population are HCV-positive. Morocco also falls into the intermediate range of seropositivity, currently standing at 1.58% anti-HCV antibodies and HBsAg at 1.81% for the general population. In terms of genotyping distribution, the predominant HCV genotypes circulating in the general North African population are 1b and 2a/2c for all North African countries, except for Libya and Egypt, which are distinct and both exhibit genotype 4 as the most commonly circulating strain. In Moroccan intravenous drug users, the predominant HCV genotypes were 1a, 3a and 4, which can therefore be caught by sharing needles with an infected person for IDUs, This is the first national study on the genotype profile of Moroccan IDUs living in the northern region of Morocco, and highlights the fact that they are a distinct cohort and display different demographic, serologic, and genotypic profiles. HBV genotype D is predominant in Morocco, as this is the major genotype in Mediterranean countries. High circulation of precore and basal core promoter mutants is common in chronic hepatitis B infection among the Moroccan patients. The introduction of HBV vaccination in the national schedule of new-born vaccination will be the leading strategy to control HBV infection.

Brian L Pearlman

Atlanta Medical Center, USA

Title: Hepatitis C Therapy: History, Standard Of Care, and Future Directions

Time : 14:45 - 15:15

Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Pearlman serves as Medical Director for the Center for Hepatitis C at Atlanta Medical Center in Atlanta, Georgia. He is Professor of Medicine at both the Medical College of Georgia and Emory School of Medicine. He completed his undergraduate and medical degree at the University of Miami, Florida and his post-graduate training at the University of Texas, Southwestern and Baylor Medical Center, both in Texas. Dr. Pearlman is widely published in clinical journals including The Lancet, Gastroenterology, Hepatology, Clinical Infectious Disease and Lancet Infectious Disease. He is active in both patient care an in teaching physicians, and has been the recipient of numerous teaching awards. He is also an active investigator in hepatitis-C related research.

Abstract:

Chronic hepatitis C infection, which is estimated to infect 170 million persons worldwide, has undergone a rapid evolution in therapy. The goal of treatment is to achieve a sustained virologic response or SVR which has been associated with histologic regression of hepatic fibrosis, improved liver-related mortality and diminished overall mortality. For more than a decade, the standard therapy for genotype 1, the most common worldwide isolate, was peginterferon and ribavirin which achieved at best an SVR rate of 45% but was fraught with a multitude of side effects and usually required 48 weeks of treatment. The past few years has seen the near elimination of interferon and the advent of direct acting antiviral agents including NS3-4A protease inhibitors, NS5a inhibitors and nucleotide and non-nucleotide NS5b polymerase inhibitors, that when used in combination, achieve greater than 90% SVR routinely, even in populations that had been heretofore considered difficult to treat. The duration of treatment ranges from 8 to 24 weeks, and therapy is much easier to tolerate, relative to interferon-containing regimens of the recent past. The major limitation of these contemporary regimens is the cost, although medicoeconomic models have shown them to be cost-effective. Future antiviral regimens for hepatitis C are expected to be active across all genotypes (pangenotypic) and may require as little as six weeks of therapy.

  • Respiratory and Emerging/Re-emerging Viruses
Speaker

Chair

Farshad Guirakhoo

GeoVax.Inc,USA

Speaker

Co-Chair

C. Yong Kang

Western University,Canada

Speaker
Biography:

Cai Jiehao has gained the master's degree from Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University in 2013.Then, he worked at Children’s Hospital of Fudan University.( Which ranked best children hospital in China inlast year). He is a pediatrician in department of Infectious Diseases. His research areas is epidemiology and the clinical treatment of infectious diseases. He has published 2 papers in reputed journals.

Abstract:

Influenza A/H3N2 viruses are associated with the most severe epidemics. Antiviral resistance and continued antigenic drift are the major concerns regarding the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza. The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence and frequency of antiviral drug resistance in influenza A/H3N2 viruses circulating among Shanghainese children from June 2009 to May 2012 and to understand the genetic evolution of the haemagglutinin (HA) epitopes. Nasopharyngeal/throat swabs were collected from outpatients with influenza-like illness. Of the 3475 children tested, 344 (9.9%) were positive for influenza A/H3N2 viruses. Epidemics of influenza A/H3N2 occurred in July-September 2009, August 2010-January 2011, and November 2011-May 2012. The 71 A/H3N2-positive specimens were sequenced to characterize the genotypic antiviral resistance and genetic drift in the HA epitopes. All of the 71 A/H3N2 viruses sequenced were genotypically resistant to adamantine but sensitive to oseltamivir. The HA1 sequence analysis revealed that the A/H3N2 viruses underwent constant mutations in the HA antigenic sites over the three seasons compared with the corresponding vaccine strains, and amino acid changes in at least three epitopes were observed each season. Phylogenic analyses indicated that the A/H3N2 strains circulating in Shanghai fell into clades different from those of the corresponding seasonal vaccine strains and were grouped into the A/Perth/16/2009 genetic clade and the A/Victoria/208/2009 genetic clades 3B, 3C, and 5. The continuous monitoring of genetic drift and antiviral resistance of influenza viruses is important for the management of influenza and for updating the vaccine composition.

Speaker
Biography:

Chunyan Liu, assistant researcher, has completed her PhD in 2014 from Capital Medical University. She has been working in virology deparment, Beijing Pediatric Research Institute, Beijing Children’s Hospital since 1996. She won the WHO and ESCV fellowship to study at virolgy department, Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control (SMI) in 2003 and 2004. She has participated in numerous projects and studies in respiratory and virology and published over 20 papers in related aspects. She is the secretory of China National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases.

Abstract:

Human adenoviruses (HAdV) play a significant role in pediatric respiratory tract infections. To date, over 60 types of HAdV have been identified. Respiratory specimens were collected from pediatric patients with ALRTIs in the emergency department or from those admitted to Beijing Children’s Hospital between March 2007 and December 2012. Infections with common respiratory viruses were determined by PCR or RT-PCR. HAdV positive samples were further typed by PCR and sequencing. Among 3356 patients with ALRTIs, 194 (5.8%) were found to have HAdV infection. HAdV infection was primarily confined to children (88.35%) less than 5 years of age. A total of 11 different types of HAdV were detected throughout the study period, with HAdV-B7 (49.0%) and HAdV-B3 (26.3%) as the most prevalent types, followed by HAdV-C2 (7.7%) and HAdVC1 (4.6%). Newly emerging and re-emergent types or variants, HAdV-B55, HAdV-C57, and HAdV-B14p1, were identified. Results also included the reported first case of co-infection with HAdV-C2 and HAdV-C57. Clinical entities of patients with single HAdV infection were similar to those with mixed HAdV/respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections. Patients with HAdV-B7 infection had longer duration of fever and higher serum levels of muscle enzymes than HAdV-B3-infected patients.During the study period, HAdV-B7 and HAdV-B3 were the predominant types identified in pediatric ALRTIs. HAdV-B7 infection tends to have more severe clinical consequences. The presence of newly emerging types or variants and co-infection with different types of HAdV highlights the need for constant and close surveillance of HAdV infection.

  • Agriculture and Plant Virology

Session Introduction

Vijay Kumar

International centre for Genetic Enginereing and Biotechnology,India

Title: The HBx oncoprotein of hepatitis B virus promotes cell transformation by stimulating rDNA transcription and ribosome biogenesis

Time : 16:30 - 16:50

Speaker
Biography:

Vijay Kumar is currently a J.C. Bose Fellow at the the International centre for Genetic Enginereing and Biotechnology (ICGEB), New Delhi. He completed his Ph.D from the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India and post-doctoral research at the Institute of Chemical Biology, Strasbourg, France. He has been a Principal Invstigator and head of the Virology Group at ICGEB. He has published over 100 papers in reputed journals and served as editorial board member of many journals. He is also a fellow of three Indian Science Academies of India.

Abstract:

The pleiotropic HBx oncoprotein of Hepatitis B virus is well known to promote the expression of several host proteins that are known to support the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Further, HBx engages multiple signalling and growth-promoting pathways to enhance ribosome biogenesis and cell proliferation. Interestingly, hepatic tumors show elevated levels of host Upstream Binding Factor (UBF) and nucleophosmin (NPM) that are essential for rDNA transcription and ribosome biogenesis. However, their role in cell transformation remains elusive. We investigated the oncogenic activity of UBF and NPM after co-expressing them with HBx in immortalized human hepatocytes (IHH) and human hepatoma Huh7 cells. We found that HBx stabilized the intracellular levels of NPM protein and translocated it into the nucleolus where it facilitated the recruitment of RNA polymerase I transcriptional machinery and enhanced rDNA transcription. Besides, HBx stimulated the expression of UBF gene by enhancing c-Myc occupancy on the UBF gene promoter. Enhanced UBF expression led to a marked increase in cell proliferation and transformation of IHH cells. Thus, our study provides some compelling evidences in support of HBx-mediated increase in NPM and UBF levels that abet oncogenic onslaught in hepatic cells by increasing rDNA transcription and ribosome biogenesis.

Speaker
Biography:

I am Associate professor I participate in workshops a conferences at USA, France, Italy, Jordan, Syria, Egypt, Lebanon, Morocco and Emirate. I am completed my PhD in field of plant pathology (virology) at age of 44 year from University of Khartoum, Sudan

Abstract:

Tomato samples with typical symptoms of Tomato Yellow leaf curl Disease (TYLCD) were collected open field and green house from Bara town (North Kordofan State) in Sudan. PCR was used to identify the pathogen using degenerate primers of Geminiviruses (AVcore and ACcore). To determine exactly the virus strain, multiplex PCR was used with sets of specific primers for tomato yellow leaf curl virus Almeria strain (TYLCV-Alm), tomato yellow leaf curl virus Israel strain (TYLCV-IL), tomato yellow leaf curl mild strain (TYLCV-mld) and tomato yellow leaf curl virus Sardinia strain (TYLCSV). All samples were positive with degenerate primers and negative with all other specific primers. PCR products were cloned and sequenced and the results showed that all isolates tested were found to be related to Tomato leaf curl Sudan virus. The highest nucleotide identities (>95%) were obtained with members of the species from Sudan and Yemen.

  • Viral Hepatitis

Session Introduction

Syed Amir Abbas Naqvi

The Muhammad Hospital,Pakistan

Title: HEPATITIS C – A READILY CURABLE DISEASE

Time : 17:10 - 17:30

Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Naqvi completed his Felloship in Internal Medicine from CPSP, Pakistan in 1995 and got through MRCPI in 2007. He an active member of ACG, ACP, AACE and the Endocrine Society. He has served as Assistant Professor ond Chief of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at Sargodha Medical College, UOS. He has a vast experience of treating HCV patients esp. Genotype 3.

Abstract:

Hepatitis C, a chronic, lifelong and life-threatening incurable disease has finally been transformed into a readily curable one. The treatment of hepatitis C has evolved over the years. Initially used IFN monotherapy. Subsequently, combination of ribavirin and IFN or PEG-IFN were used. For the first time, since its discovery in 1989, hepatitis C can be cured without ribavirin and pegylated interferon. PegIFN-based treatment regimens have well-documented adverse event (AE) profiles including influenza-like symptoms and depression, which have led to unfavorable discontinuation rates in clinical trials, and RBV also has associated side effects including teratogenicity, hemolytic anemia, and rash. PegIFN used to be too toxic for some patients to complete their treatment, had variable and low overall success rate and above all it was associated with a significant relapse rate.During the past 2 years, treatment regimens with new antiviral drugs have achieved sustained virologic response (SVR) rates of up to 90%-100%. These drugs will also benefit patients with severe fibrosis or cirrhosis by reducing disease progression, hepatic decompensation, and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV NS5B polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir has emerged as an important component of currently recommended regimens. Antiviral agents with different mechanisms of action are combined in order to increase efficacy and prevent resistance but for a more finite duration. We currently expect an overall low long-term relapse rate.